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The recent advances and potential applications of nanoparticles and nanofibres for energy, water, food, biotechnology, the environment, and medicine have immensely conversed. The present review describes a ‘green’ method for the synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles and ‘green electrospinning’ both using tree gums (arabic, tragacanth, karaya and kondagogu). Furthermore, this review focuses on the impending applications of both gum stabilized nanoparticles and functionalized membranes in remediation of toxic metals, radioactive effluents, and the adsorptive removal of nanoparticulates from aqueous environments as well as from industrial effluents. Besides, the antibacterial properties of gum derivatives, gum stabilized nanoparticles, and functionalized electrospun nanofibrous membranes will also be highlighted. The functionalities of nanofibrous membranes that can be enhanced by various plasma treatments (oxygen and methane, respectively) will also be emphasized.