Cécilia Claeys, Carole Barthelemy, Thierry Tatoni and Patrick Bonhomme
This article provides an interdisciplinary analysis of the notion of overuse in natural areas. Based on the case of the French Calanques massif (located along the Mediterranean coast between Marseilles and Cassis), sociology and biology combine their analyses to examine the social processes behind the increasingly widespread use of natural areas and the ecological consequences thereof. The data are comprised of interdisciplinary research based on eighty semi-structured interviews conducted on-site and 330 telephone survey questionnaires. We critically analyse of the notion of overuse and underscore the socio-economic, cultural and ideological weight it carries in the context of socio-natural change; this calls into question the relevance of the ancient nature/culture dichotomy. Drawing on theoretical tools from environmental sociology, this article also provides some perspectives for natural area managers.
Suteera Vibulyaseck, Saknan Bongsebandhu-phubhakdi, Supang Maneesri le Grand and Anan Srikiatkhachorn
1. The International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition. Cephalalgia. 2004; 24 (Suppl 1): 9-160.
2. Bigal ME, Rapoport AM, Sheftell FD, Tepper SJ, Lipton RB. Transformed migraine and medication overuse in a tertiary headache centre - clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. Cephalalgia. 2004; 24:483-90.
3. Jonsson P, Hedenrud T, Linde M. Epidemiology of medication overuse headache in the general Swedish population. Cephalalgia. 2011; 31:1015-22.
4. Horton BT
Jonathan Sinclair, Bobbie Butters and Philip Stainton
stimuli ( Brandt et al., 2008 ). The pathogenesis of tibiofemoral overuse injuries relates to the magnitude and frequency of the loads experienced by the joint during running, which represent the initiating mechanism that causes the onset of knee OA ( Miyazaki et al., 2002 ). The medial aspect of the tibiofemoral joint is significantly more susceptible to injury than the lateral compartment ( Wise et al., 2012 ). Contact loading at the tibiofemoral joint is mediated via the knee adduction moment (KAM). The KAM is frequently utilized as a pseudo measure of medial
Occupational diseases (ODs) often have a chronic, progressive course, resulting in reduced work capacity and quality of life, prolonged sick leaves, unemployment, early retirements, and disability claims. The aim of this retrospective study was to see how diagnosed ODs affected the employment of 95 Croatian workers between 2005 and 2014. To do that, we reviewed archived data and made a telephone survey. The lowest age at which an OD was diagnosed was 20 years in women and 22 in men, while the shortest duration of work before OD diagnosis was one year for both genders. The most common ODs were overuse syndromes on the arms, carpal tunnel syndrome in particular, diagnosed mostly in textile and office workers. Of the 95 participants, 12 lost their jobs since the OD diagnosis, 46 retired, and 37 continued to work. Significantly more participants became unemployed after OD diagnosis in the period 2010-2014 than 2005-2009 (9 out of 43, 21 %, vs. 3 out of 52, 6 %, P<0.05). Only five participants were included in an occupational rehabilitation programme. Our findings warn against the deterioration in care for workers diagnosed with OD in Croatia.
1. Makela MJ, Puhakka T, Ruuskanen O, Leinonen M, Saikku P, Kimpimäki M, et al. Viruses and bacteria in the etiology of the common cold. J Clin Microbiol. 1998; 36:539-42.
2. Monto AS. Viral respiratory infections in the community: epidemiology, agents, and interventions. Am J Med. 1995; 99:24S-7S.
3. Gwaltney JM. Clinical significance and pathogenesis of viral respiratory infections. Am J Med. 2002; 112(Suppl 6A):13S-8S.
4. Gonzales R. Overuse of antibiotics for acute respiratory
Manuela Liliana Mureşan, Bogdan Cristian Chiripuci and Puiu Nistoreanu
Sustainable tourism should be achieved in a balanced environment with standards that guarantee the preservation of ecological balance and prevent overuse of resources, pollution and other negative environmental impacts. In Romania, the tourism as social and economic phenomenon integrates in the unitary economy of the country having the necessary conditions for enhanced development and optimization of the tourism fund’s explotation. This paper aims to highlight different perspectives to relaunch tourism services and will be the identification of factors which contributing to the sustainability of the tourism business. In addition, there will be comparisons of competitiveness in travel and tourism sector in countries such as Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary and Romania.
In Lithuanian public and academic discourse, discussions about the influence of English have received considerable attention. Much has been written on the English borrowings in Lithuanian or various translation strategies applied at word, phrase or syntactic levels of language, whereas there have been only few attempts to investigate how Lithuanian translated from English differs from original language. This is why we found it interesting to investigate lexical an morphological features of translated Lithuanian applying the methods of corpus liguistics. For research purposes, we used a morphologically annotated comparable 4 mln. word corpus of original and translated fiction and popular science literature ORVELIT. It has been found that translations deviate in certain ways from original Lithuanian. Translated Lithuanian has: a lower lexical density, higher proportion of function words, shorter sentences, and higher proportion of list heads; translated fiction has a lower lexical variability and smaller proportion of low frequency words, whereas in popular science translations, these differences are less evident. Keyword analysis has shown content differences in originals and translations and the overuse of personal and possessive pronouns in popular science translations. The distribution of content and function words differs in originals and translations and in different registers. Translated Lithuanian has: more verbs (especially finite forms and adverbial participles), but less nouns and adjectives; fiction translations have less and popular science more adverbs than originals; there are more pronouns and prepositions in both popular science and fiction translations; depending on the register, there are higher or lower numbers of conjunctions, particles and interjections. Some of the differences may be explained by the English language interference as: the overuse of the optional 1st person pronoun in subject position, the overuse of optional preposition “su” with instrumental case, or the overuse of optional link verb in the complex predicate. In other words, the English influence is seen in transferring certain features obligatory for analytical language where omission would be a more natural choice in original Lithuanian. These findings in most cases agree with the previous research on translationese of other languages. It is hoped that the identified tendencies to over- or under-use certain lexical and morphological features as a result of English language interference might appear to be useful when editing and translating.
Antibiotic resistance represents a serious threat worldwide. When considering the increasing ability of bacteria to effectively resist antibacterial agents, it is necessary to reduce the consumption of antibiotic substances in animal production in order to preserve their effectiveness in the future. Attention should be paid to the multidrug resistant microorganisms’ occurrence, which can be very exhausting for the breeder not only from the economic point of view. Therefore, alternative sources of antibacterials should be considered due to the limited possibilities of using conventional antibiotics in animal breeding, e.g. application of various substances including organic acids, clay minerals, etc. Nowadays, the research in this field also focuses on the combinatory effect of such compounds, which can also find the perspective for use in animal breeding. This article provides an overview of problems connected with the resistance of diverse bacteria to antibiotic treatment in livestock breeding. It emphasises the need for alternate resources usage with the aim to lower the environmental burden caused by overuse of antimicrobials used in subclinical doses in the past and with the expanding bacterial resistance.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the course of labour, incidence, and causes of dystocia and effectiveness of obstetric aid for minimising the neonatal loss in bitches that belong to miniature breeds. Fifty parturitions proceeded under obstetric supervision from the first to last puppy born. Most of the bitches (n = 34) belonged to the Chihuahua breed. Others included Yorkshire terrier (n = 14), Shih Tzu (n = 1), and Miniature Schnauzer (n = 1). Obstetric procedures consisted of conservative aid in the form of medication, manual manipulations and combination of both, or caesarean section. The litter size was 3.58 on average. Dystocia occurred in 68% of cases, mostly caused by foetomaternal disproportion. The condition took place less frequently in multiparas than in primiparas. A caesarean section was performed in 20 cases (40%), while remaining 30 bitches delivered puppies through genital tract using manual assistance, oxytocin injections or both procedures simultaneously. The shortening of expulsive stage using conservative aid or timely performed caesarean section resulted in low stillbirth rate (5.59%). The kind of obstetric aid used in the study was related to the specificity of miniature dogs enabling successful conservative treatment. However, conservative obstetric procedures require skills, clinical experience, and are time-consuming. These may be the reasons for a frequent overuse of caesarean section. It was concluded that both surgical and conservative treatment methods, if chosen appropriately, are effective at the same level.
The article presents theory and practice of teaching English for Medical Purposes. In the theoretical part, our study deals with role of the teacher and aspects of the learner’s autonomy in EMP teaching, communicative approach, and the development of academic skills such as reading a scientific article, listening to lectures, and giving a presentation. The practical part is divided into three sections. Students were tested for reading and listening for specific information as well as general understanding. The main factors which caused difficulties in listening comprehension (Skills Evaluation 1) are the speaker’s rate of speech, accent, the role of a listener, the type of language used, the context of situation, background noise and visual support. The analysis of the main errors in reading comprehension (Skills Evaluation 2) showed the incorrect use of prepositions, passive voice, tenses, specific medical and academic vocabulary, and discourse markers. Assessment of the most common weaknesses in presentation skills (Skills Evaluation 3) includes lack of confidence and eye contact, overuse of haptics, fearful body posture, and the inappropriate use of paralanguage.