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. Hoskins W.J.,, Carlos A. Perez, C. A., Young R.C., Barakat R., Markman M., Randall M.,Gynecologic Oncology Lippincott Williams&Wilkins, 2005, ISBN 0-7817-4689-2. 7. Eisenkop SM, Friedman RL, Wang HJ. Complete cytoreductive surgery is feasible and maximizes survival in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: a prospective study. Gynecologic oncology. 1998 May 1;69(2):103-8. 8. Horowitz NS, Miller A, Rungruang B, Richard SD, Rodriguez N, Bookman MA, Hamilton CA, Krivak TC, Maxwell GL. Does aggressive surgery improve outcomes? Interaction between preoperative

References [1] Fong PC, Yap TA, Boss DS, Carden CP, Mergui- Roelvink M, Gourley C, De Greve J, Lubinski J, Shanley S, Messiou C, A’Hern R, Tutt A, Ashworth A, Stone J, Carmichael J, Schellens JH, de Bono JS, Kaye SB. Poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase inhibition: frequent durable responses in BRCA carrier ovarian cancer correlating with platinum-free interval. J Clin Oncol. 2010 May 20;28(15):2512-9. doi: 10.1200/ JCO.2009.26.9589. Epub 2010 Apr 20. [2] Fong PC, Yap TA, Boss DS, Carden CP, Mergui- Roelvink M, Gourley C, De Greve J, Lubinski J, Shanley S, Messiou C, A

Abstract

Ovarian cancer is perhaps the most “worst” pathology in women’s genital area and represents the greatest diagnostic challenge and surgical treatment of genital cancers, and as much as the disease has a onset and asymptomatic evolution to the advanced stages or with a confused symptom.

The present study was performed due to the following factors characterizing ovarian cancer: increasing incidence, early diagnosis, lack of screening methods, difficult anatomopathological differentiation even for experienced anatomopathologists.

References 1. Lengyel E. Ovarian cancer development and metastasis. Am J Pathol 2010; 177: 1053-64. 2. Rauh-Hain JA, Krivak TC, Del Carmen MG, Olawaiye AB. Ovarian cancer screening and early detection in the general population. Rev Obstet Gynecol 2011; 4: 15-21. 3. Nguyen L, Cardenas-Goicoechea SJ, Gordon P, Curtin C, Momeni M, Chuang L, et al. Biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer. Womens Health (Lond Engl) 2013; 9: 171-85; quiz 186-177. 4. Amon LM, Law W, Fitzgibbon MP, Gross JA, O’Briant K, Peterson A, et al. Integrative proteomic analysis of serum

L, Ameye L, Savelli L, et al. Adnexal masses difficult to classify as benign or malignant using subjective assessment of gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound findings: logistic regression models do not help. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011;38:456-65. 7. Daemen A, Valentin L, Fruscio R, et al. Improving the preoperative classification of adnexal masses as benign or malignant by second-stage tests. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011;37:100-6. 8. Timmerman D, Van Calster B, Testa AC, et al. Ovarian cancer prediction in adnexal masses using ultrasound-based logistic

Introduction Osteopontin (OPN) is an important signalling agent in the development and progression of cancers. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 As a soluble protein, sOPN is one of the promising blood tumour markers for detecting epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 However, practical clinical use of sOPN as a tumour marker in EOC awaits further evaluation. Although there are encouraging reports on sOPN as a serum tumour marker for detecting primary and recurrent EOC 5 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , we have not found any published report on the prognostic value of

Introduction The standard treatment of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is a combination of primary surgery followed by chemotherapy. In the recent years it became clear that the goal of surgery is to achieve no macroscopic residual disease, since the survival of patients with no residual disease is superior to survival of patients with visible residual disease. 1 To achieve this goal, several aggressive surgical techniques have been proposed. Often multivisceral resections are performed (diaphragm resection, splenectomy, colon resection

FF, Zhong XY. An overview of biomarkers for the ovarian cancer diagnosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011; 158: 119-23. 5. Lalwani N, Prasad SR, Vikram R, Shanbhogue AK, Huetter PC, Fasih N. Histologic, molecular, and cytogenetic features of ovarian cancers: implications for diagnosis and treatment. Radio Graphics 2011; 31: 625-46. 6. Paulsen T, Kærn J, Kiærheim K, Tropé C, Tretli S. Symptoms and referral of women with epithelial ovarian tumors. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2005; 88: 31-7. 7. Wikborn C, Pettersson F, Silfverswärd C, Moberg PJ. Symptoms and diagnostic

References 1. Cannistra SA. Cancer of the ovary. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351:2519-29. 2. Runnebaum IB, Stickeler E. Epidemiological and molecular aspects of ovarian cancer risk. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2001; 127:73-9. 3. Huang H, Tindall DJ. Dynamic FoxO transcription factors. J Cell Sci. 2007; 120:2479-87. 4. Brunet A, Bonni A, Zigmond MJ, Lin MZ, Juo P, Hu LS, et al. Akt promotes cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting a Forkhead transcription factor. Cell. 1999; 96:857-68. 5. Brunet A, Kanai F, Stehn J, Xu J, Sarbassova D, Frangioni JV, et al. 14

REFERENCES 1. B. M. Reid, J. B. Permuth and T. A. Sellers, Epidemiology of ovarian cancer: a review, Cancer Biol. Med . 14 (2017) 9–32; https://doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2016.0084 2. J. Permuth-Wey and T. A. Sellers, 20. Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer , in Cancer Epidemiology: Modifiable Factors (Ed. M. Verma)/Series: Methods of Molecular Biology 472 (2009) 413–437, Springer, New York 2009; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60327-492-0_20 3. J. Ledermann, F. Raja, C. Fotopoulou, A. Gonzalez-Martin, N. Colombo and C. Sessa (ESMO guidelines working