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References 1. Kanis JA, Melton LJ, Christiansen C, Johnston CC, Khaltaev N. The diagnosis of osteoporosis. Journal of bone and mineral research. 1994; 9(8):1137-1141. 2. Riggs BL, Melton Iii LJ. The worldwide problem of osteoporosis: insights afforded by epidemiology. Bone. 1995; 17(5):S505-S511. 3. Rosen CJ, Compston JE, Lian JB. ASBMR primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. 2009, John Wiley & Sons. 4. Lindsay R, Silverman SL, Cooper C, Hanley DA, Barton I, Broy SB, Stracke H. Risk of new vertebral fracture in the year

References American College of Rheumatology Task Force on Osteoporosis Guidelines. Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:1791-801. Mazziotti G, Angeli A, Bilezikian JP, Canalis E, Giustina A. Glucocortcoid-induced osteoporosis: an update. Trends Endocrnol Metab 2006;17:144-9. Lukert BP, Raisz LG. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: pathogenesis and management. Ann Intern Med 1990:112:352-64. Shaker JL, Lukert BP. Osteoporosis associated with excess glucocorticoids. Endocrinol Metab

References World Health Organization (WHO). Technical Report Series 921. Prevention and management of osteoporosis. Geneva: WHO; 2003. Melton LJ. How many women have osteoporosis now? J Bone Miner Res 1995;10:175-7. Shilbayeh S. Prevalence of osteoporosis and its reproductive risk factors among Jordanian women: a cross-sectional study. Osteoporos Int 2003;14:929-40. Li N, Ou P, Zhu H, Yang D, Zheng P. Prevalence rate of osteoporosis in the mid - aged and elderly in selected parts of China. Chin Med J 2002;115:773-5. Yang TS, Chen YR, Chen YJ, Chang CY, Ng

References 1. Sambrook P, Cooper C. Osteoporosis. Lancet 2006; 367 (9527):2010-18. 2. Cheung AM, Detsky AS. Osteoporosis and fractures: missing the bridge. JAMA 2008; 299:1468-70. 3. Becker DJ, Kilgore ML, Morrisey MA. The societal burden of osteoporosis. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2010; 12:186. 4. Pankova S, Vasileva L, Petkova V. A review of current treatment options for osteoporosis in Bulgaria. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2015;4(5):1-12. 5. Sanders S, Geraci SA. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: considerations in prevention and treatment

fracture in Malmo. Osteoporos Int 2000;11:669-74. Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC Jr, Sembo I, Redlund-Johnell I, Dawson A, De Laet C, Johnsson B. Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. adults from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12:1761-8. Kaštelan D, Kujundžić Tiljak M, Kraljević I, Kardum I, Giljević Z, Koršić M. Calcaneus ultrasound in males - normative data in the Croatian population (ECUM study). J Endocrinol Invest 2006;29:221-5. Frost ML, Blake GM, Fogelman I. Can the WHO criteria for diagnosing osteoporosis be applied to calcaneal

References 1. Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, et al. A reference standard for the description of osteoporosis. Bone. 2008;42(3):467-75. 2. National Osteoporosis Foundation. Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Available at http://www.nof.org/professionals/ clinical-guidelines. 2011 3. Bono CM, Einhorn TA. Overview of osteoporosis: pathophysiology and determinants of bone strength. Eur Spine J. 2003;12(2):90-6. 4. Ringe JD, Farahmand P. Advances in the management of corticosteroidinduced osteoporosis with bisphosphonates. Clin

References 1. Bonner Jr.FJ, Chesnaut CH, Lindsay R. Osteoporosis. In Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Principles and Practice. 4th Edition, Ed. DeLisa JA, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2005:699-719. 2. Uebelhart B, Rizzoli R. Osteoporose et douteur ou l`osteoporose fait-elle mal? Revue Medicale Suisse. 2005;22 (25):1662-5. 3. Silverman SL, Piziak VK, Chen P, Misurski DA, Wagman RB. Relationship of health related quality of life to prevalent and new or worsening back pain in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The Journal of Rheumatology. 2005

Introduction Osteoporosis is a disease which occurs with a decrease in the density of bones and is a disorder in the microstructure of bone tissue. This disease often occurs above 50 years of age and mostly in women possibly due to decrease in the level of certain hormones [ 1 , 2 ]. Being afflicted by this disease in lower ages can be also triggered by a variety of reasons such as using corticosteroids, hyperthyroidism, lack of calcium consumption and vitamin D, stress and alcohol and cigarette consumption [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. Due to the increase in osteoporosis

.W.: Sexual cycles. In: Reproduction and Breeding Techniques for Laboratory Animals. Edited by Hafez E.S.E. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1970. 8. Gilsanz V, Roe T.F., Gibbens D.T., Schulz E.E, Carlsen M.E., Gonzalez O., Boechat M.I.: Effect of sex steroids on peak bone density of growing rabbits. Am J Physiol 1988, 255, 416-421. 9. Grisso J.A., Capezuti E., Schwartz A.: Falls and risk factors for fractures. In: Osteoporosis. Edited by Marcus R, Fieldman D., Kelsey J. Academic Press, San Diego, 1997. 10. Hartke J.R.: Practical development for agents for the treatment of

References 1. Szulc P, Mary LB. Overview of osteoporosis: Epidemiology and clinical management. Vertebral Fracture Initiative Resource Document PART I. International Osteoporosis Foundation; 2011. 2. Senthilkumar K, Venkatesan J, Kim S. Marine derived natural products for osteoporosis. Biomed Prev Nutr. 2014;4(1):1-7. 3. Turner R, Riggs B, Spelsberg T. Skeletal effects of estrogen. Endocr Rev. 1994;15(3):275-300. 4. Walsh JS, Eastell R. Role of estrogen in the age-related decline in bone microstructure. Clin Endocrinol Metab J. 2013;98(2):519-21. 5. Löffek S