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Streszczenie

Badania przeprowadzono w oparciu o wyniki uzyskane z eksperymentu polowego. Celem badań było określenie wpływu oczyszczonych ścieków miejskich, zastosowanych w dawce pojedynczej, optymalnej dla danej rośliny (ustalona w oparciu o ładunek N i wody) i podwójnej dawce ścieków na zawartość i specjację Cd i Fb w glebie organicznej obojętnej. W pobranych z każdego obiektu, uśrednionych próbach glebowych, oznaczono zawartość ogółem Cd i Fb oraz specjację tych metali. Wyodrębniono 5 frakcji Cd i Pb zdefiniowanych operacyjnie: wymienną (FI), węglanową określaną jako „związaną specyficznie” (F2), związaną z tlenkami Fe-Mn (F3), organiczną(F4) i pozostałości (F5). Stwierdzono, że całkow ita zawartość ołowiu w badanej glebie odpowia- dała wartościom naturalnym, zaś ilość kadmu przekraczała dopuszczalne normy ustalone dla gleb organicznych. Wyniki chemiczne- go frakcjonow ania Cd i Fb w glebie wytworzonej z torfu niskiego, zarówno z obiektów' naw ożonych oczyszczonymi ściekami, jak i z obiektu kontrolnego przedstaw iają następujące uszeregow anie procentowy ch zawartości poszczególnych frakcji w kolejności ma- lejącej: F3>F2>F4>F1>F5 - kadm, F3>F4>F2>F5>F1 - ołów. Oczyszczone ścieki miejskie, będące źródłem łatwo rozpuszczalnych związków organicznych, mogą w'pływać nawiązanie Cd i Fb we frakcji organicznej, co potwierdza odnotowany w badaniach wzrost ilości metali w tej frakcji w glebie.

REFERENCES Bogacz A., 2005. Właściwości i stan przeobrażenia wybranych gleb organicznych Sudetów. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej we Wrocławiu, Rozprawy nr 507, Wrocław: 145 ss. (in Polish with English abstract). Bogacz A., Ochej A., Niemirowska I., 2008. Organic soils properties in selected areas in Bialskie Mountains. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 59(3/4): 31–40 (in Polish with English abtract). Bogacz A., Roszkowicz M., 2010. The influence of forest on the changes of organic soils properties in the marginal part of the Krągłe Mokradło peatland

LITERATURA Andrič M., Kroflič B., Toman M.J., Ogrinc N., Dolenec T., Dobnikar M., Čermelj B., 2008. Late quaternary vegetation and hydrological change at Ljubljansko barje (Slovenia). Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleścology 270: 150–165. Berglund O., Berglund K., 2010. Distribution and cultivation intensity of agricultural organic soils in Sweden and estimation of greenhouse gas emissions. Geoderma 154: 173–180. Bogacz A., Szulc A., Bober A., Pląskowska E., Matkowski K., 2004. Wpływ stopnia zmurszenia torfu na skład i liczebność grzybów glebowych obiektu

REFERENCES Anderson D.E., 2002. Carbon accumulation and C/N ratios of peat bogs in North West Scotland. Scottish Geography Journal 118(4): 323–341. Andrzejczak M., 2010. Properties and the stage of evolution in peat and post-peat soils in object Trzcińskie Mokradła. PhD Thesis, Wrocław University of Life Sciences: 1–186 (in Polish). Andrzejczak M., Bogacz A., 2013. Composition of humic fraction in organic soil in different parts of peatland split by railway line. Zeszty Naukowe of the Wrocław University of Life Sciences 595: 7–19 (in Polish). Cleveland C

REFERENCES Andrzejczak M., Bogacz A., 2013. Composition of humic fraction in organic soil in different parts of peatland splited by railway line. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego we Wrocławiu 595: 7–19. Arkhipov V.S., Bernatonis V., Rezchicov K., 2000. Distribution of iron, cobalt and chromium in peatlands of the central part of Western Siberia. Eurasian Soil Science 33(12): 42–56. Bjork S., 1993. The Hongyuan wetland research project. An ecological and technical feasibility study of peat mining in Higyuan, Sichuan, China. Summary prepared for the

REFERENCES 1. Coufal R., Olszewska M.: Analiza parametrów konsolidowanego podłoża nasypem z gruntu rodzimego na Ostrowie Grabowskim w Szczecinie , Inżynieria i Budownictwo, 5/2017, Warsaw, 2017, 260-262. 2. Farrell E. R.: Organic/peat soils , ICE manual of geotechnical engineering. Institution of Civil Engineers, Glasgow, 2013, 463-479. 3. Hastlen J., Wolski W.: Embankments on Organic Soils , ELSEVIER, Amsterdam, 1996. 4. Lechowicz Z., Szymański A.: Odkształcenia i stateczność nasypów na gruntach organicznych, cz. II Metodyka obliczeń , Wydawnictwo SGGW

Summary

Introduction: Soil additives, which usually contain nutrients and microorganism, can improve soil conditions for plants. There are still few papers dedicated to the application of soil additives in herb plants, especially in calendula.

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of selected soil additives on growth and yield of calendula.

Methods: In a pot experiment first order factor was a type of soil: mineral soil with straw, mineral soil and organic soil. The second order factor was soil additive: control, UG Max, EM1 and PRP SOL.

Results: The application of UG Max and PRP SOL increased the yield of dry matter of flowerheads by respectively 48.1% and 46.3% in comparison with the control group.

Conclusions: UG Max and PRP SOL proved to be the most useful soil additive for calendula growing. The effect of UG Max and PRP SOL was particularly good on organic soil.

Summary

In studies of organic soil degradation and transformation, alongside the conventional methods used in soil science, an increase in the importance of advanced statistical methods can be observed. In this study some multivariate statistical methods were applied in an investigation of organic soil transformation in the central Sudetes. Andrews curves, linear and kernel discriminant variable analysis and cluster analysis were used. The similarities among peatland soils and their layers were determined. It can be stated that the application of statistical methods in soil science research related to organic soil transformation is a valuable tool. The use of various statistical methods (such as Andrews curves, linear and kernel discriminant variables and cluster analysis) can with high probability confirm earlier laboratory or field observations. This is particularly justified in the case of organic soils derived from varied geobotanical peat materials, different types of peatlands and water supply types, which impact the primary properties of the soil.

Abstract

The objective of the work was to investigate hydrophobic properties of soil formations with various amounts of organic matter and occurring in young glacial landscape. The research was carried out in mineral, mineral-organic and organic (slightly and strongly silted mucks, sedge peat, alder wood peat, reed peat) soil formations. Water repellency is very important in soil protection. It favors the formation of stable aggregates and prevents from soil erosion. The study was carried out applying two methods . water drop penetration time test (WDPT) and alcohol percentage test (AP). Among 51 analyzed soil samples in WDPT test, 64.7% of mineral and mineral-organic soil formations were hydrophilic. Among organic soil formations 37.6% was slightly and strongly hydrophobic and they represented strongly silted mucks. Unsilted and slightly silted mucks, weakly and strongly decomposed peats, were very strongly (18.8%) and extremely (43.6%) hydrophobic. AP test showed that strongly silted mucks were moderately and very strongly hydrophobic. Slightly silted mucks, and peats were very strongly and extremely hydrophobic. It can be stated that water repellency decreases simultaneously with the degree of siltation of organic soil formations.

Abstract

Pedological studies were carried out in the upper course of the Liviec River involving laboratory analyses of three profiles of hemic muck organic soil. The objective was to evaluate the basic properties (pH, crude ash content and carbon and nitrogen content) and to determine the speciation of carbon and nitrogen based on the sequential extraction with a neutral reagent (0.25M KCl) and two-stage acid hydrolysis at different concentrations of hydrogen ions (0.25M H2SO4 and 2.5M H2SO4).

The muck horizons, in relation to the peat horizons, had a higher content of ash and a lower concentration of carbon and lower carbontonitrogen ratios. The reduction of acidity in the examined soil had a significant impact on a higher proportion of mineral nitrogen forms. The moorshing process caused by desiccation of the examined soil contributed to an increase in the proportion of soluble organic matter forms (extracted with 0.25M KCl) and easily hydrolysing organic forms (extracted with hydrolysis in 0.25M H2SO4).