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The paper presents the results of the measurements of the catalytic activity of V2O5/TiO2 and MoO3/TiO2 catalysts (8,10,12 and 15 wt % of V2O5 or MoO3 on TiO2 - anatase, respectively), prepared in our laboratory, in the complete oxidation (combustion) process of chosen volatile organic pollutants of the air such as methanol and n-butyl acetate. The activity of these catalysts was compared with the activity of industrial catalysts: supported platinum - Pt-p (0.15 wt % of Pt on γ-Al2O3) and MCA (15 wt % of CuO and 6 wt % of ZnO on γ-Al2O3). The investigations were carried out in the kinetic region (powder of the catalysts with the diameter in the range of 1.02-1.2·10-4 m) and for the chosen catalysts also in the diffusion region (the grains of the catalysts having the diameter of 2.5·10-3 m). On the basis of the obtained results the analysis of the process was performed.
It has been stated that reaction rate is well-described by the first order equation in relation to the methanol or n-butyl acetate concentration. On the basis of the obtained results in the kinetic region for all the applied catalysts the parameters of Arrhenius equation were determinated.
The comparison of the results for the kinetic region with the results for the diffusion region for the chosen catalysts allowed the calculation of the effective coefficients of diffusion. The parameters of Arrhenius equations as well as the effective coefficients of diffusion show a good correlation with the values obtained for the catalytic combustion of other organic pollutants of the air.
The measurements were carried out using a flow tubular reactor. The flow rate of the reaction mixture was kept constant 20 dm3/h (5.56·10-6 m3/s) in each test, using the space velocity of 20 s-1. It has been stated that the use of the applied catalysts led to the almost total oxidative destruction of both pollutants. Only H2O and CO2 were found as the final products of the reaction. The complete oxidation of the methanol process runs at the lower temperature than that of the complete oxidation process of n-butyl acetate. The most active at the combustion of methanol was the Pt-p catalyst. It demonstrates a comparable activity to molybdenum - titanium catalysts and the slightly lower activity than vanadium - titanium catalysts in the combustion of the n- butyl acetate process. The MCA catalyst was less active than the others in the oxidation of both compounds. The structures of the catalysts were tested using the X -ray analysis (XRD), infrared spectroscopy and scanning microscopy (SEM).
The results of the investigations show that V2O5/TiO2 and MoO3/TiO2 catalysts, especially the most active of them the 8% V2O5/TiO2 catalyst can be used in industrial systems for the purification of the air and industrial waste gases with VOCs, replacing the more expensive noble metals supported catalysts.
). Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health , 211 , 648–657. Broding, H. C., Schettgen, T., Göen, T., Angerer, J., Drexler H. (2007). Development and verification of a toxicokinetic model of polychlorinated biphenyl elimination in persons working in a contaminated building. Chemosphere , 68 , 1427–1434. Draper, W. M., Liang, J., Fowler, M., Kharrazi, M., Flessel, F. P., Perera S. K. (2007). Testing for Persistent OrganicPollutants in Banked Maternal Serum Specimens. In: Krieger, R. I., Ragsdale, N., Seiber, J. N. (eds.). Assessing Exposures and Reducing Risks to People from
bio remediation at xenobiotic/anthropogen contaminated sites. Biores Technol. 2009;101(6):1558-156. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.10.080.  Kang JW. Removing environmental organicpollutants with bioremediation and phytoremediation. Biotechnol Lett. 2014;36:1129-1139. DOI: 10.1021/es203753b.  Simarro R, González N, Bautista LF, Molina MC. Assessment of the efficiency of in situ bioremediation techniques in a creosote polluted soil: Change in bacterial community. J. Hazard Mater. 2013;262:158-167. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.08.025  Hammond-Kosack KE
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dibenzo- p -dioxins and dibenzofurans in paddy soils and river sediments in Akita, Japan. Chemosphere 2007;67:557--73. Mai TA, Doan TV, Tarradellas J, de Alencastro LF, Grandjean D. Dioxin contamination in soils of Southern Vietnam. Chemosphere 2007;67:1802--7. Marvin C, Alaee M, Painter S, Charlton M, Kauss P, Kolic T, MacPherson K, Takeuchi D, Reiner E. Persistent organicpollutants in Detroit River suspended sediments: polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes. Chemosphere 2002
Organic Pollutants in Groundwater in the Former Airbase
Oil derivatives are commonly used and they play a key role in the economy. They are used in many industries. Such big amounts of oil derivatives products generate vast quantity of pollution. Those pollutants can get into the ground and water beyond any control during catastrophes or due to inadequately managed waste and storage. The aim of the paper was to determine the level of oil derivatives pollution in the groundwater on the area of a former airbase, where between 1950 and 1990 the Soviet Army stationed. Analysis was carried out on groundwater samples from three piezometers placed on the area of the former airbase. In the samples some parameters were determined, i.e. temperature, reaction, electrolytic conductivity, the depth of groundwater surface, the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Determined amount of dissolved hydrocarbons was large what proves unsatisfactory effectiveness of previous rehabilitation processes.
References 1. AMAP, 2004. AMAP Assessment 2002: Persistent OrganicPollutants in the Arctic. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway. xvi +310 pp [displayed 18 November 2015]. Available at http://www.amap.no/documents/doc/amap-assessment-2002-persistent-organicpollutants-in-the-arctic/96 2. United Nations Environment Programme, Mediterranean Action Plan, Athens; 2011. Hazardous substances in the Mediterranean: a spatial and temporal assessment. [displayed 18 November 2015]. Available at http://22.214.171.124/dbases/MAPmeetingDocs/11WG365
This paper presents the results of the research work related to the removal efficiency from wastewater organic pollutants and suspended solids at HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetland. The average effectiveness defined as loss of value COD in wastewater has reached 77%, for BOD5 - 80% and TOC - 82%. The effect of seasonal temperature changes and the period of plant vegetation and rest on the effectiveness of wastewater treatment were also analyzed. The results of the presented research showed a decrease in the efficiency of removing organic pollutants from wastewater and suspended solids in the autumn and winter. During the vegetation the object in Małyszyn has been characterized by the effectiveness of wastewater treatment at the level of 78% for COD, 82% for BOD5, and in the non-vegetation period the effectiveness has decreased up to 75% for COD and 74% for BOD5. During the plants growth the total suspension was removed in 88%, whereas during the plants rest efficiency of removing lowered to 69%.