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The challenge of death and ethics of social consequences: Death of moral agency

Abstract

The present paper focuses on the issue of death from the perspective of ethics of social consequences. To begin with, the paper summarizes Peter Singer’s position on the issue of brain death and on organ procurement related to the definition of death. For better understanding of the issue, an example from real life is used. There are at least three prominent sets of views on what it takes to be called dead. All those views are shortly presented and analysed. Later, the theory of ethics of social consequences is briefly presented. The paper looks for the position of this ethical theory in connection to the issue of death. The issue of organ procurement, which is closely connected to the problem of defining death, is used as a means for a better understanding of the issue. The issue of death is studied through the categories of moral subject and moral object. Using the standpoint of ethics of social consequences enables us to distinguish between the death of a moral agent and the death of the organism. That helps to soften many issues associated with the topic.

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Reluctance and willingness for organ donation after death among the Slovene general population

Abstract

Introduction

The paper presents the findings of the first large-scale survey on post-mortem organ donation among the general Slovenian population. It focuses on the reported donation willingness, the barriers to joining the register of organ donors and the position towards consent to donate organs of deceased relatives.

Methods

A face-to-face survey was conducted on a probability sample of 1,076 Slovenian residents between October and December 2017. The performed analyses included estimations of means and proportions for target variables, an evaluation of between-group differences and a partial proportional odds model to study the relations between organ donation willingness and socio-demographic characteristics.

Results

The mean reported willingness to donate one’s own organs after death was 3.77 on a 5-point scale, with less than a third of respondents claiming to be certainly willing. Only 6% of those at least tentatively willing to donate organs were certain to join the register of organ donors in the future. The most frequently reported barriers to registration were unfamiliarity with the procedure and a lack of considering it beforehand. The reported willingness to donate organs of a deceased relative strongly depended on the knowledge of the relative’s wishes, yet 80% of the respondents did not discuss their wishes with any family members.

Conclusions

The findings confirm the gap between the reported donation willingness and joining the register of donors. Future post-mortem organ donation strategies need to consider socio-demographic and attitudinal factors of donation willingness and help stimulate the communication about organ donation wishes between family members.

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Organ Donation: from Point of View of Students Doing Medical Internship in India

Abstract

Introduction. To study the knowledge and attitude of a medical student doing internship with regards to organ donation. Methods. A total of 50 specially designed questionnaires were distributed among medical students doing internship at a medical college. Those who gave their consent to participate in the study were asked to fill out the questionnaire. Results. 86% gave their consent to participate in the study. 100% were aware of the concept of organ donation. 68% had obtained this knowledge from newspapers. 4% had obtained knowledge from the Medical College. 48%, 48% and 34% believed that an organ donor was live, brain dead and cardiac dead, respectively. Awareness regarding kidney, eye, liver, heart and skin donation was found to be 82%, 80%, 80%, 62% and 64%, respectively. 54% were aware of Law pertaining to organ donation. 90% were either positive or willing to consider organ donation themselves. 10% felt that the donated organ might be misused. Conclusion. Health care professionals are the first to establish relationship with the potential donor’s family and are a crucial link in the organ procurement process. Their attitude and level of knowledge regarding organ donation would reflect directly on the organ donation activity of any region. The interns in the present study had positive attitude towards organ donation but were lacking in knowledge about some key aspects such as brain death and legality involved in organ donation. Majority of the medical professionals had obtained their knowledge from newspapers and very few were taught about organ donation in the medical college. If education on organ donation and its various aspects was included in medical curriculum, it could empower the future medical care professionals with knowledge to further study the cause of organ donation and serve the society better.

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Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Organ Donation among Medical Students

Abstract

Introduction. All over the world people on organ transplant waiting lists die due to shortage of donor organs. The success of organ donation program needs education of the population regarding organ donation for which healthcare professionals are most suitable. The present study was taken up to assess the knowledge and attitude of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students about organ donation. Methods. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was distributed amongst all willing 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students at our Medical College and later analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 157, 145 and 92 students from each year of medical education respectively gave their consent for participation in the study. Awareness regarding organ donation was found to be 98.7-100%, 69.4% claimed television as their source of information regarding organ donation and 46.7% stated that it is possible for patient to recover from brain death. The awareness regarding eye, liver, heart and kidney donations was found to be 92.4%, 87%, 87% and 97.8%, respectively. 87% of medical students were aware of need for legal supervision, and awareness regarding the existing laws was found to be 57.6%. Conclusion. Medical students had a high level of awareness and a positive attitude towards organ donation. However, knowledge regarding “brain-death”, organs and tissues donated, legislation and ethical issues was poor. A teaching intervention designed to specifically address these issues could help increase the confidence of the health-care professionals and may result finally in increased organ procurement rates.

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Multi-organ Transplantation Center in Romania: a story of persuasion for a controverted issue

://www.who.int/transplantation/activities/GlobalGlossaryonDonationTransplantation.pdf?ua= Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation (GODT), Summary transplant data per country, region and global , 2016-2017, retrieved from http://www.transplant-observatory.org/summary/ Hodgetts, S. (2011). Effective Leadership: The Key To Successful Hospital Management, Health Management , Volume 13, Issue 5/2011, retrieved from https://healthmanagement.org/c/hospital/issuearticle/effective-leadership-thekey-to-successful-hospital-management Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the

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Transplant Critical Care: Is There A Need for Sub-specialized Units? — A Perspective

;91:219. 13. Plevak DJ, Southorn PA, Narr BJ, Peters SG. Intensive-care unit experience in the Mayo liver transplantation program: the first 100 cases. Mayo Clin Proc. 1989;64:433-45. 14. Annual Report of the US Scientific Registry for Transplant Recipients and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network: Transplant Data. 2012. http://srtr.transplant.hrsa.gov/annual_reports/2012/pdf/03_liver_13.pdf 15. Neelakanta G, Sopher M, Chan S et al. Early tracheal extubation after liver transplantation. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1997;11:165-7. 16. Mandell

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Different approaches to the relationship of life & death (review of articles)

. 1538–1545. SMALL, N., FROGGATT, K. & DOWNS, M. (2007): Living and dying with dementia: Dialogues about palliative care . Oxford: Oxford University Press. ŠVAŇA, L. (2016): „Etika“ vojny a terorizmu [“ Ethics ” of war and terrorism ]. Bratislava: Veda. VEATCH, R. M. (2015): Killing by organ procurement: Brain-based death and legal fictions. In: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy , 40(3), pp. 289–311. WOJEWODA, M. (2018): Axiology and the morality of the human being. In: Ethics & Bioethics ( in Central Europe ), 8(3–4), pp. 219

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Liver Transplantation: Surgical Aspects

the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score predict patient survival and primary dysfunction in liver transplantation: A retrospective analysis. Transplantation , 83 (5), 588-592. Starzl, T. E. (2000). History of clinical transplantation. World J. Surg., 24 (7), 759-782. Starzl, T. E., Hakala, T. R., Shaw, B. W., Jr., Hardesty, R. L., Rosenthal, T. J., Griffith, B. P., Iwatsuki, S., Bahnson, H. T. (1984). A flexible procedure for multiple cadaveric organ procurement. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 158 (3), 223

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Brain death as irreversible loss of a human’s moral status

(5), pp. 318–319. VEATCH, R. M. (2003): The dead donor rule: True by definition. In: The American Journal of Bioethics , 3(1), pp. 10–11. VEATCH, R. M. (2015): Killing by organ procurement: Brain-based death and legal fictions. In: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy , 40(3), pp. 289–311. VEATCH, R. M. & ROSS, L. F. (2015): Transplantation ethics . Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press. WARREN, A. M. (1973): On the moral and legal status of abortion. In: The Monist , 57(1), pp. 43–61. WARREN, A. M. (1997): Moral status. In: R. G

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Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients

References Anonymous. (2009). Annual Report of the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and the Science Registry of Transplant Recipients: Transplantation data 1999-2008. Department of health and human services, Rockville, MD. Anonymous. (2010). Eurotransplant International Foundation. Annual report 2010. Osterlee, A., Ramel, A. Central Office. Leiden. The Netherlands. Archdeacon, P., Chan, M., Neuland, C., Velidedeoglu, E., Meyer, J., Tracy, L., Cavaille-Coll, M., Bala, S., Hemandez, A

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