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Effects of winter survival training on selected motor indices
Study aim: To assess the effects of prolonged winter survival activities of moderate workouts on selected motor skills in male participants of survival instructor training course.
Material and methods: A group of 11 physical education students, participants of a survival course camp for instructors, aged 21 - 25 years, participated in the study. They were examined 3 times: before starting the course (Day 1), on the following morning - after a 12-h night training when the participants were deprived of sleep (Day 2) and 24 h later, after a 6-h sleep and survival activities lasting all day (Day 3). At the end of the course all the participants were assessed by a single 10-point scale. In the mornings of all 3 days the participants were subjected to the following tests: 15-m straight run, shuttle run 3×5 m, 15-slalom run, 15-m squat, computer-aided co-ordination test, maximum handgrip, 50%-handgrip and corrected 50% handgrip.
Results: Running velocity on Day 3 was significantly (p<0.05) decreased in relation to the previous days but a running performance index computed from the standardised values of all running tests did not decrease and on Day 2 was even significantly (p<0.05) higher than on Day 1. No significant between-day differences were found for the visual co-ordination test and for handgrip strength indices despite exhausting workloads applied.
Conclusions: Although the applied tests did no fully reflect the real performance of subjects under the winter survival conditions, it seems that engaging soldiers in consecutive military actions without an adequate recovery should be avoided whenever possible in order to improve the execution of strenuous tasks.
After some passing considerations on the reception of Lewis in Romania, the present paper discusses the role played by Anglicanism in the late personal commitment of C.S. Lewis to the Christian faith, after years of atheism, scepticism, and agnosticism. It argues that in fact Anglicanism contributed very little to Lewis’s (re)conversion to Christianity. Furthermore, the paper agrees with the generally accepted idea that the particular calling that Lewis felt he had, that of being a Christian apologist, made him wary of being associated with the defence of any specific Christian tradition. In virtue of this special calling, Lewis also reacted quite strongly against certain aspects of Anglicanism, like, for instance, the ordination of women to priesthood, which he perceived as an obstacle to ecumenism and, implicitly, to an effective defence of the Christian faith in the public arena. In spite of all this, there is little doubt that Lewis has fully and unreservedly adopted Anglicanism as his preferred version of Christianity. From this particular stance, the life and ministry of C.S. Lewis made a huge public impact in the twentieth century and beyond. In light of the undeniable influence he had on the intellectual and religious scene in the last hundred years, one may ask not so much how Anglican was Lewis, but, rather, ‘why isn’t Anglicanism more like Lewis’.
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