This study focuses on mesic and xeric grasslands of mostly secondary origin, and that are influenced by human activity. Mesic grasslands are traditionally used for hay-making, and xeric ones for pastures. Over the last 20 years, livestock farming in Bulgaria has significantly declined so that less grass is needed. Many types of grasslands are no longer used and lots of abandoned fields can be found nowadays in Bulgaria. The analyses in this study are based on 868 releves collected on xeric and mesic grasslands according to the methodological approach of Braun- Blanquet. As a result, five alliances within two classes are recognized: the class Festuco-Brometea, represented by three alliances, namely Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati, Chrysopogono-Danthonion calycinae and Festucion valesiacae, and the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, represented by two alliances, namely Arrhenatherion elatioris and Cynosurion cristati. The majority of the managed grasslands are situated in close proximity to settlements. Most of the abandoned areas (30%) are found within Cirsio-Brachypodion alliance. These grasslands are characterized by the highest values of total cover of vegetation. They are located in the most distant and least accessible areas. If use is not resumed, all the abandoned grasslands will be under threat of extinction in the near future. At the same time, many arable lands have been abandoned and turned into grasslands by the processes of secondary succession.
The Tall-Herb and Tall-Grass Plant Communities of the Class Mulgedio-Aconitetea in the Subalpine Belt of the Krivánska Malá Fatra MTS (Slovakia)
The following paper reports the results of phytosociological research of tall-herb and tall-herb plant communities within the class Mulgedio-Aconitetea in the subalpine belt of the Krivánska Malá Fatra Mts. The data set of 209 relevés was sampled and analysed using numerical classification and ordination. Major ecological gradients were interpreted using Ellenberg's indicator values and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index. Ten associations within five alliances were distinguished and characterised: Aconitetum firmi, Digitali ambiguae-Calamagrostietum arundinaceae, Helianthemo grandiflorae-Calamagrostietum arundinaceae, Potentillo aurei-Calamagrostietum arundinaceae, Allio victorialis-Calamagrostietum villosae, Festucetum carpaticae, Adenostylo alliariae-Athyrietum alpestris, Aconito firmi-Adenostyletum alliariae, Geranio robertiani-Delphinietum elati and Aconito firmi-Rumicetum alpini. Relationships between the floristic composition of the communities and environmental variables were analysed by canonical correspondence analysis.
Eva Kabaš, Snežana Vukojičić, Antun Alegro, Boštjan Surina, Nevena Kuzmanović, Vedran Šegota and Dmitar Lakušić
Phytosociological and numerical analyses of grasslands dominated by Sesleria juncifolia s.l. in Serbia were performed in order to resolve their syntaxonomy and nomenclature. Twelve releves were sampled on Mt. Mučanj (western Serbia), which were then compared with similar releves from other parts of the Balkan Peninsula by means of numerical analyses. The releves were classified using cluster analysis, while the ordination was conducted using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). The results suggest the occurrence of two floristically well defined Dinaric associations in Serbia: Seslerio juncifoliae-Edraianthetum graminifolii ass. nova from Mt. Mokra Gora (Oxytropidion urumovii, Elyno-Seslerietea) and Diantho petraeae-Seslerietum juncifoliae ass. nova (Chrysopogono-Saturejion, Festuco-Brometea) from Mt. Mučanj.
Nikolay Velev, Iva Apostolova, Zuzana Rozbrojová and Petra Hájková
The Alliances Arrhenatherion, Cynosurion and Trifolion Medii in Western Bulgaria - Environmental Gradients and Ecological Limitations
The vegetation of mesic grasslands distributed in the central part of Western Bulgaria is studied. A significant number of 533 relevés were made following the Braun-Blanquet approach. Classification and ordination of the vegetation was performed. The vegetation is classified up to alliance level. The result of the classification are four groups which correspond to the alliances Arrhenatherion elatioris, Cynosurion cristati and Trifolion medii. Within Cynosurion alliance two well distinct subgroups are observed, differing in moisture of the substrate - provisionally called "wet" and "dry" Cynosurion. Ellenberg Indicator Values are used for assessment of ecology of the habitats. The pasture/mowing management of the studied vegetation types is commented.
Syntaxonomy and Ecology of Black Alder Vegetation in the Southern Part of Central Slovakia
The study presents phytosociological and ecological data from azonal black alder forest sites in the southern part of central Slovakia. A data set of 29 relevés was collected by authors in vegetation season 2010 following the standard Braun-Blanquet approach. Numerical classification was performed to delimit the main vegetation types, while statistical analyses were applied to explain the vegetation-environmental relationships. Three associations within two classes were distinguished using a TWINSPAN algorithm. Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae Schwickerath 1933 is an alder carr forest occurring on waterlogged soils in spring fed areas and alluvial zones along rivers. Carici acutiformis-Alnetum glutinosae Scamoni 1933 represents an alder carr forest on habitats with stagnant or slowly flowing water along water courses and artificial water reservoirs. Mesic to humid stands along small brooks are typical for the riparian alder vegetation of Stellario-Alnetum glutinosae Lohmeyer 1957. A detailed description of the floristic and ecological features of these associations is presented. The major environmental gradients affecting variation in species composition of these communities were interpreted as a response of vegetation to soil moisture and nutrient availability regarding the Ellenberg indicator values (moisture and nutrients) and measured variables (total N and C).
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Marković Lj, Petković G, Toroman D, Bebić M, Vukobratović M, Radosavljević A, Raičević R, Ćulafić S