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Enterococci are commonly encountered and predominate oral infections; especially those associated with necrotic pulp, root canal infections, and periodontitis [ 1 , 2 ]. They comprise only a minimal proportion of the oral flora, but frequently occur as contaminants of food, such as meat and cheese [ 2 ]. Because Enterococcus are potential nosocomial oral pathogens, the emergence of multiresistant strains has increased interest in their pathogenicity and potential drug resistance [ 3 ]. Many studies have demonstrated a role of Enterococcus in causing

Summary

The metacestode stage of the tapeworm Mesocestoides vogae (M. vogae) has the ability of asexual growth in the peritoneal cavity of rodents and other intermediate hosts without restriction. Early immunological events have decisive role in the establishment of infection. In the present study we investigated the kinetic of myeloid and lymphoid cell populations and the proportions of cells undergoing apoptosis in peritoneal cavities of mice within the first month after oral infection with M. vogae larvae. Proportions of cell phenotypes and apoptotic cells were examined by flow cytometry and by microscopical analysis of cells following May/Grünwald staining and fluorescent stain Hoechst 33234, respectively. Total numbers of peritoneal cells increased and their distribution changed towards accumulation of myelo-monocytic cell lineage in the account of reduced proportions of lymphoid cells. CD4+ T cell subpopulations were more abundant than CD8+ and their proportions elevated within two weeks post infection (p.i.) which was followed by a significant decline. Expression level of CD11c marker on myelo-monocytic cells revealed phenotype heterogeneity and proportions of cells with low and medium expression elevated from day 14 p.i. along with concurrent very low presence of CD11chigh phenotype. Lymphoid cell population was highly resistant to apoptosis but elevated proportions of myeloid cells were in early/late stage of apoptosis. Apoptosis was detected in a higher number of adherent cells from day 14 p.i. onwards as evidenced by nuclear fluorescent staining. By contrast, cells adherent to larvae, mostly macrophages and eosinophils, did not have fragmented nuclei. Our data demonstrated that apoptosis did not account for diminished population of peritoneal lymphoid cells and substantial proportions of myeloid cells seem to be more susceptible to apoptotic turnover in peritoneal cavity of mice with ongoing M. vogae infection, suggesting their important role in the host-parasite interactions.

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