Bangalore H. Durgesh, Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif, Asmaa M. Malash, Mohamed I. Hashem, Mansour K. Assery, Mohammed Al Asmari and Pavithra Durgesh
Enterococci are commonly encountered and predominate oralinfections; especially those associated with necrotic pulp, root canal infections, and periodontitis [ 1 , 2 ]. They comprise only a minimal proportion of the oral flora, but frequently occur as contaminants of food, such as meat and cheese [ 2 ]. Because Enterococcus are potential nosocomial oral pathogens, the emergence of multiresistant strains has increased interest in their pathogenicity and potential drug resistance [ 3 ].
Many studies have demonstrated a role of Enterococcus in causing
T. Mačák Kubašková, D. Mudroňová, M. Gergeľ-Čechová and G. Hrčková
The metacestode stage of the tapeworm Mesocestoides vogae (M. vogae) has the ability of asexual growth in the peritoneal cavity of rodents and other intermediate hosts without restriction. Early immunological events have decisive role in the establishment of infection. In the present study we investigated the kinetic of myeloid and lymphoid cell populations and the proportions of cells undergoing apoptosis in peritoneal cavities of mice within the first month after oral infection with M. vogae larvae. Proportions of cell phenotypes and apoptotic cells were examined by flow cytometry and by microscopical analysis of cells following May/Grünwald staining and fluorescent stain Hoechst 33234, respectively. Total numbers of peritoneal cells increased and their distribution changed towards accumulation of myelo-monocytic cell lineage in the account of reduced proportions of lymphoid cells. CD4+ T cell subpopulations were more abundant than CD8+ and their proportions elevated within two weeks post infection (p.i.) which was followed by a significant decline. Expression level of CD11c marker on myelo-monocytic cells revealed phenotype heterogeneity and proportions of cells with low and medium expression elevated from day 14 p.i. along with concurrent very low presence of CD11chigh phenotype. Lymphoid cell population was highly resistant to apoptosis but elevated proportions of myeloid cells were in early/late stage of apoptosis. Apoptosis was detected in a higher number of adherent cells from day 14 p.i. onwards as evidenced by nuclear fluorescent staining. By contrast, cells adherent to larvae, mostly macrophages and eosinophils, did not have fragmented nuclei. Our data demonstrated that apoptosis did not account for diminished population of peritoneal lymphoid cells and substantial proportions of myeloid cells seem to be more susceptible to apoptotic turnover in peritoneal cavity of mice with ongoing M. vogae infection, suggesting their important role in the host-parasite interactions.
Effects of Sodium Octanoate, Acylated Ghrelin, and Desacylated Ghrelin on the Growth of Genetically Engineered Escherichia Coli
Acylated ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide hormone bearing a fatty acid group based on octanoic acid (caprylic acid) at the serine which is located at position 3 and at the N-terminus. If this fatty acid is cleaved from acylated ghrelin, the remaining peptide is referred to as desacylated ghrelin. Free fatty acids (FFAs) can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to test this ability using acylated ghrelin, desacylated ghrelin, and sodium octanoate (caprylic acid) as carbon sources for the genetically engineered Escherichia coli strains MK79 and MK57. For this experimental work, minimal medium was modified by replacing glucose with equal concentrations of acylated ghrelin, desacylated ghrelin, or sodium octanoate. Bacterial optical density, viability, alpha-amylase production, plasmid stability and pH of the growth medium were measured during these experiments. The media that allowed most growth, based on viable cell counts and the OD600 of MK79, was minimal medium, followed by the medium containing desacylated ghrelin or acylated ghrelin, and finally the medium containing sodium octanoate. The same order was observed for MK57. Neither of the strains lost plasmids during the entire course of each experiment. There was also little change in the pH of any of the media used for both strains. These results suggest that sodium octanoate, acylated ghrelin, and desacylated ghrelin, when compared with minimal medium, inhibit Escherichia coli growth. Proliferation was lowest when sodium octanoate was used as the carbon source, followed by acylated ghrelin and desacylated ghrelin. Therefore, the acylated ghrelin found previously in human saliva might help to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms, and acylated ghrelin levels below a critical concentration in saliva could result in an increased risk of oral infection.
Parichehr Ghalayani, Payam Tavakoli, Mehdi Eftekhari and Mohammad Akhondzadeh Haghighi
, Chilf GN. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 13 from focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck lesions. J Virol.1983;47:363-6.
12. Kumaraswamy KL, Vidhya M. Human papilloma virus and oralinfections: An update. J Cancer Res Ther. 2011;7:120-7.
13. Ledesma-Montes C, Garces-Ortiz M, Hernandez-Guerrero JC. Clinicopathological and immunocytochemical study of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:2211-7.
14. Ledesma-Montes C, Vega-Memije E, Garces-Ortiz M, Cardiel- Nieves M, Juarez-Luna C
Márta Germán-Salló, Zoltan Preg, Dalma Bálint Szentendrey, Enikő Nemes-Nagy, Mihály Imre László, Zita Fazakas, Edith Simona Ianosi, Pál István Kikeli, Zoltán Ábrám and Péter Balázs
1. Jenkins CD. Building better health: a handbook of behavioral change. Washington, D.C: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization; 2003.
2. Petersen PE. Tobacco and Oral Health – the Role of the World Health Organization. Oral Health. 2003;1(4):8.
3. Li X, Kolltveit KM, Tronstad L, Olsen I. Systemic Diseases Caused by OralInfection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000;13(4):547–58.
4. Tobacco and Oral Health [Internet]. Action on Smoking and Health. 2016 [cited 2019
, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Critical reviews in oral biology and medicine. 2004;15:403413.
11. Carrion J, Scisci E, Miles B, et al. Microbial carriage state of peripheral blood dendritic cells (DCs) in chronic periodontitis influences DC differentiation, atherogenic potential. J Immunol. 2012;189:3178-3187.
12. Boillot A, Demmer RT, Mallat Z, et al. Periodontal microbiota and phospholipases: the OralInfections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST). Atherosclerosis. 2015;242:418-423.
13. Mahendra J
Marcin Weiner, Wojciech Iwaniak, Krzysztof Szulowski and Monika Szymajda
M.J., Muñoz P.M., Vizmanos J.L., López-Goñi I.: Multiplex PCR assay for the identification and differentiation of all Brucella species and the vaccine strains Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 and Brucella melitensis Rev1. Clin Chem 2006, 52 , 779-781.
6. Garin-Bastuji B., Hummel N., Gerbier G., Cau C., Pouillot R., Da Costa M., Fontaine J.J.: Nonspecific serological reactions in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis: experimental oralinfection of cattle with repeated doses of Yersinia enterocolitica O:9. Vet Microbiol 1999, 66 , 223
Marcin Weiner, Krzysztof Szulowski, Wojciech Iwaniak and Jolanta Złotnicka
1. Garin-Bastuji B., Hummel N., Gerbier G., Cau C., Pouillot R., Da Costa M., Fontaine J.J.: Nonspecific serological reactions in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis: experimental oralinfection of cattle with repeated doses of Yersinia enterocolitica O:9. Vet Microbiol 1999, 66 , 223-233.
2. Gerbier G., Garin-Bastuji B., Pouillot R., Very P., Cau C., Berr V., Dufour B., Moutou F.: False positive serological reactions in bovine brucellosis: evidence of the role of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 in
primers. PCR Meth Appl 1993, 3, 85-94.
4. Falcao J.P., Falcao D.P., Pitondo-Silva A., Malaspina A.C., Brocchi M.: Molecular typing and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains from human, animal and food origins isolated between 1968 and 2000 in Brazil. J Med Microbiol 2006, 55, 1539-1548.
5. Garin-Bastuji B., Hummel N., Gerbier G., Cau C., Pouillot R., Da Costa M., Fontaine J.J.: Nonspecific serological reactions in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis: experimental oralinfection of cattle with repeated doses of Yersinia