The present article reports on a case study that focuses, comparatively, on the extent to which Romania’s Prime Minister Adrian Năstase and UK’s Prime Minister Tony Blair reveal their intentions and thoughts in their investment speeches, by the use of the personal pronouns I and we. The number of occurrences of each of the two first person pronouns and the way in which they are used will be considered in an analysis that is both quantitative and qualitative. The overall aim of the comparative approach is to highlight how democracy is seen in the cases scrutinized, based on the activation by the speakers of the principle of cooperation in oral communication.
Society is now at a stage at which it is possible to obtain information about almost anything within a very short period of time. Such a situation requires the usage of one language for mutual understanding and communication of scientific, technological and academic information among different linguistic groups within a multi-linguistic community.
English has become the common language of international experts in a wide range of subjects, including medicine. Courses in ESP focus on the specific vocabulary and the unique language skills those in a given field are likely to require.
The overall goal of the English in Medicine course at the Faculty of Medicine in Niš is to improve the proficiency of the learners and inevitably comprises the discoursal, grammatical and sociolinguistic competence and performance depending on the four linguistic skills.
In this article, we discuss ellipsis as an interactive strategy by analysing the author’s textchat corpus and the VOICE corpus of English as a Lingua Franca. It is found that there were fewer repetitions in the textchat data, and this is explained as a consequence of the textchat mode. Textchat contributions are preserved as long as the chat is active or has been saved, and therefore users can scroll through and review the discussion, compared to the more fleeting nature of oral conversation. As a result, repetition is less necessary. The frequency of other functions identified could be attributed to the topic of discourse. Discussions involve much ellipsis used to develop discourse, although some were self-presentations with repetition used to confirm details. Back-channel support and comments were often low because speakers instead used forms like yeah as supportive utterances.
The frustration in Polish society arising from excessive costs of conducting court proceedings and lengthy delays for dispute resolution has resulted in a genuine limitation in access to judicial justice for citizens. This paper argues that the answer to the dilemma between ensuring both justice and efficiency lies in language being a tool for the active participation of the parties in building mutual trust and shaping solutions in conflictual circumstances. How should the postulate of effective communication leading to dispute resolution in modern justice be achieved? The authors present the advantages of oral communication in proceedings on the way to finding agreement, pointing out the content and quality of language that make dispute resolution possible.
This article investigates examples of citizen media production and communication (blogs and social media sites in Tanzania and its diasporas) in the immediate aftermath of the Gongo la Mboto blasts in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, February 2011.
At the centre is the relationship between media use and communication practices of the pavement - drawing from the notion of pavement radio - and the spaceship, i.e. a metaphor for traditional mass media, exemplified by policies and practices of the BBC and its World Service.
We argue that new social media practices as digital pavement radio are converging with traditional forms of street buzz and media use. Forms of oral communication are adapting towards the digital and filling information voids in an informal economy of news and stories in which media practices are stimulated by already ingrained traditions. An existing oral culture is paving the way for a globalization of the pavement.
Communicative competence has been the central point of a great number of English for specific purposes (ESP) studies. However, its relevance to second language acquisition by medical students and attainability are still to be established as the critical evaluation of the present findings may help to create a valuable inventory for practical use in a classroom. The review set out to explore the present-day concept of communicative competence with regard to ESP teaching and ways of its development in students of medical universities. It analyzed the structure of the concept of communicative competence generally viewed as comprising both linguistic and extralinguistic constituents. Special emphasis was placed on the aspect of enhancing competitive competence through students’ involvement in oral communication. One of the most effective ways of developing communication skills in ESP classes in medical schools is exposure to authentic communication using Internet facilities. The videos should be thematically adjusted to the students’ professional needs and correlate with their level of linguistic and professional expertise. This approach helps to accomplish a number of teaching goals such as providing students with the information about the framework of speech events iterative in medical and academic spheres, communication patterns used in them, and raising their professional and socio-cultural awareness. It also aims to develop their ability to perform speech activities within a wide range of professional and academic contexts. The review made it possible to identify efficient reproductive and productive teaching methods to be employed.
Professional foreign language training is offered to cultivate the ability to master cross-cultural communication in the sphere of future professional activity. By means of intercultural competence of foreign language we are raising professional competence, too. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all spheres of life of that country. In many countries where it is an official language and language of instruction, as most communication outside school is in the local languages it is taught as language to learn other disciplines. These are two contrasting contexts for enhancing the English language skills. In both settings there are concerns about students’ difficulties in developing adequate English proficiency to successfully learn content through that language. This paper analyzes the influence of sociocultural factors on the students’ motivation to learn English in different countries, reveals main problems and difficulties in oral English teaching practice, illustrates the relationship between oral English teaching and cross-cultural communication competence. On the one hand, cross-cultural communication plays an essential role in oral English teaching; besides, oral English teaching promotes cross-cultural communication competence. On the other hand, in some countries English is not the prerequisite of future successful career. But anyway the author insists on consistency of English teaching concept with that of the world. Improving the students’ cross-cultural oral communication ability is impossible without laying equal stress on cross-cultural communication competence and oral English teaching.
The article analyzes the stages of organizing the education process in social schools in France based on the example of Regional Institute of Social Work Aquitaine, Bordeaux. It is found that the Institute pays specific attention to the basic courses: professionalization and methodology; social and solidarity economy; professional approach to service; social connections and exclusion; legal approaches; project development and management; sociology of education; human development; psychopedagogy of animation project; family law; social protection and social security; research methodology; legal approach to information management for the EU countries; humour and pedagogy; oral communication and education; anthropology of education; education and philosophy, the views on the education process: family education; mental disability: history and current events; self-study and lifelong learning; psychology of education: theoretical principles, methods, educational and social practices. It is clarified that the main characteristic of social careers in France, regardless of specialization, is the ability to provide permissive and appropriate mediation between the individual, family and society, state and social structures; to act as a partner, linking the personality and society, children and adults, family and society. It is justified that there is no distinction between “social worker” and “social educator” in France. French specialists consider social work to be “personal support services for people”, which is based on certain sciences (law, psychology, sociology) and accumulated experience of practical sociopsychological, health-improving, rehabilitational and therapeutic support of the individual.
This article explores the spatial generation and perception of administrative districts. It has a particular focus on how certain administrative practices contributed to diminishing spatial distance between district offices and local society, that is, residents and municipalities, from the early 19th century to the 1870S in the Grand Duchy of Baden. TWO different administrative systems – a centralized one introduced in 1809 and a more participative one dating from 1863/1865 – characterize the period under consideration. With regard to the methodological approach, the understanding of the generation and perception of administrative spaces is informed by cultural, communications, and media studies.
With respect to the spatial generation and perception of the administrative districts, two administrative practices are of particular interest. Firstly, administrative visitations (›Ortsbereisungen‹) were periodically carried out in the villages by the district officers, starting in the early 19th century, to gather information as the basis of a ›close‹ description of the administrative, agricultural, economic, infrastructural, security, welfare and health conditions in the districts for the purpose of administrative reports. Oral communication and immediacy in conducting the administrative visitations contributed in particular to reducing distance between district administrations and local society.
Secondly, the article explores the role of honorary district councillors as middlemen between local society and district administration from the mid-1860s. In their roles as experts, advisors, and mediators – which they also fulfilled in the context of administrative visitations – the honorary district councillors enhanced the proximity of local society to the district administration and in this way contributed to the perception of the district as a rather small space.
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