In this paper, I argue for an analysis that treats the ba construction in Chinese as a case of shape preservation-induced movement structure. Specifically, the robust preverbal adverbial and PP expressions and the mandatory ba-DP movement in ditransitive structures are both derived from a violable head directionality macroparameter under the Symmetrical Syntax Hypothesis, which allows directionality parameters to examine word order throughout the derivation. In addition to being able to capture the parallel syntactic properties of Scandinavian object shift, this account receives further empirical support from word order facts of Archaic Chinese and Bambara.
Paulina Gradus, Ewa Benza, Olga Rybak, Paweł Krzysztoń, Paulina Batorzyńska, Magdalena Plandowska and Wiesław Lech Kurpeta
Introduction. Physical activity is fundamental to children's all-round development in the first six years of their life. It is particularly significant in preschool age, when the need for movement is predominant. Psychomotor development, conditioned by children's innate abilities and their own activity, depends upon the influence of external surroundings as well as parental upbringing and preschool education. The aim of the study was to obtain data regarding physical activity (both structured and unstructured) of children during their stay in a kindergarten. Material and methods. The study was conducted in five state kindergartens situated in four main housing estates of Bia³a Podlaska. It included 11 groups of older preschool children. It was a diagnostic study. A diagnostic poll method employed in the study included interviews with teachers, lesson observations (during one day) and document analyses (programmes and class registers). Results. During their stay in a kindergarten children take part in physical activities for 1.5 hours a day. During this period they participate in obligatory forms of physical activity such as morning gymnastics, movement plays, outdoor activities and gymnastic exercises. Furthermore, optional movement activities are organised in kindergartens (different forms in different kindergartens). Such extra classes enable children to be physically active for over two more hours per week. Conclusions. In terms of caring about health and motor development of children, not all elements of preschool education programmes are fully realised. Training sessions, workshops and lectures showing diverse forms of physical activity for children ought to be organised for preschool teachers.
Peter Bakalár, Martin Zvonar, Jaromir Sedlacek, Rut Lenkova, Peter Sagat, Lubos Vojtasko, Erika Liptakova and Miroslava Barcalova
of university students. Another deduction can be about the negative influence of summer vacations on the volume of movement activity. These findings relate mainly to the 1st and 2nd year of study, in which the comparison of differences in the frequency of structured movement activity was statistically significant in both men and women. The question is why students from the 3rd to the 6th year of schooling disappear from the hours of optionalmovement activities. Should not the obligation to pass a physical activity lead the students to take free hours of physical