Zoltán Hodai, Dora Rippelné Pethő, Géza Horváth, László Hanák and Róbert Bocsi
In opened systems with liquid-phase (for example open-source bioreactors for various purposes) very significant temperature can be generated. The operation of the system can be impaired, possibly completely inhibited (too low, too high temperature values). The analytic description of the operation’s heat flow is needed to achieve the optimized operation and to block the thermodynamic inhibition. The aim is to examine the inner system opportunities and the auxiliary energy. The estimates values quantify the effects of atmospheric electromagnetic radiation on opened systems. Based on the developed model by increasing the complexity of the method, it is appropriate to describe the heat flow of opened systems and to explore the energy integration possibilities.
Karol Kulinowski, Maciej Wołoszyn, Marta Radecka and Bartłomiej J. Spisak
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The Swedish legislation on labour migration came into force in 2008, inspired by recommendations of the European Commission. In the regulation, there is a conflict between an employer-governed labour migration with a simplified procedure and protective aims like equal treatment with workers in the country or protection against unemployment. In this article, the author investigates how these aims are balanced against each other, in the regulation, in the regulatory guidelines to migration authorities, in the practical application and in the recent transposition of European Union directives. The author also discusses the consequences of this with regard to the power relation between the employer and the employees.
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Hayk Grigoryan, Hrachya Astsatryan, Tigran Gevorgyan and Vahe Manukyan
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The real estate market is an open system, which implies that it is able to exchange signals with other open systems and dynamic systems. The evolution of a market system over time can be described mathematically. If the system's sensitivity threshold to external stimuli is exceeded, it becomes destabilized and moves from a near-balanced state to a state that is far from equilibrium. Those dynamic processes often induce key changes in the system's trajectory of evolution. In search of equilibrium, the system becomes transformed in a process of discontinuous and discrete changes in state variables. The above statement constitutes the research hypothesis in this article.
In this study, an attempt was made to develop a mathematical model for visualizing the evolutionary path of the real estate market in the form of continuous changes interrupted by discontinuous changes. The qualitative transformation of the system will be evaluated with the use of the catastrophe theory.
This paper has taken an insight to the systemic models of family business from the open systems perspective. I focus on family business system models and on the subsystems content of family system and ownership system in family business context. The paper claim that the open system perspective on intercultural family businesses has both theoretical and empirical implications on family business research. Family businesses have many reasons, including family conflicts over money, nepotism leading to wrong management, and infighting over the succession of power from one generation to the other. Regulating the family’s roles as shareholders, board members, and managers is very important because it can help avoid these pitfalls. This paper will discuss the importance of the openness of the company through five the attributes of enduring family businesses: ownership, family, business and portfolio governance, wealth management, foundation. Dimension of attributes success have taken family business like five jewelers.
Real estate market can be thought of as an open, dynamic system. It means that it is able to exchange stimuli with other open systems, and that its state evolves in a way that might be described mathematically. It turns out that two main processes contribute to the overall evolution of the real estate market: long-term, predictable evolution, interrupted by sharp changes of catastrophic origin. In this picture, national housing funds play an important role in supporting the housing finance: on one hand they could either stimulate or suppress the real estate market influencing the availability of the mortgage credit, but on the other hand, they could also help to stabilize prices. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the degree of relationship between the volume of mortgage financing from national housing funds and the dynamics of real estate prices.
The presented research aims to contribute to the concerns regarding the evolutionary dynamics of the real estate market, seen as an open system flowing from one equilibrium state into another. In such quasi-stable states, real estate markets are thought to change only slightly with elapsed time, but occasionally, a sudden jump, during which the markets undergo changes of structural origin, might occur as well. Hence, the paper contains an analysis of the dynamics of time series of housing prices in order to distinguish between processes of different time scales. Research was performed assuming a priori distributions of the variables, and using the autocorrelation function together with the partial autocorrelation function for detailed data analysis.