Scaligeria meifolia Boiss., belonging to the Apiaceae family, grows wild in Iran. The essential oil from aerial parts of S. meifolia were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-one constituents representing 99.98% of total oil components were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were germacrene-D, (24.2%), germacrene-B (14.8%), limonene (14.2%), γ-elemene (11.6 %) and β-elemene (5.2%).
The aim of study was to determine the variability of 20 yarrow populations introduced into ex situ conditions, in respect of selected developmental traits as well as content and composition of biologically active compounds (essential oil, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids). Field experiment was established at the Experimental Station, Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants. Morphological observations and harvest of raw material were carried out in the second year of plant vegetation, at the beginning of blooming. Investigated populations differed significantly in respect of developmental features as well as content and composition of identified compounds. The highest differences among the populations concerned fresh mass of herb (0.46–1.79 kg per plant), number of shoots per m2 (64–243) and length of the longest internode (42–158 mm). Total content of essential oil ranged from 0.10 to 1.00%. Among 24 identified compounds β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, terpinene-4-ol, nerolidol and chamazulene were the dominants. According to content of these compounds, three chemotypes were distinguished within investigated populations, i.e.: β-pinene, β-pinene + chamazulene and 1,8-cineole type. Content of tannins ranged from 0.38 to 0.90%. Four flavonoids were identified and apigenin 7-glucoside was present in the highest amount (from 9.87 to 475.21 mg × 100 g−1), while the highest differences between populations concerned the content of luteolin-3',7-diglucoside. Within phenolic acids, three compounds (caffeic acid derivatives) were identified. Rosmarinic acid was the dominant one (75.64–660.54 mg × 100 g−1), while cichoric acid differentiated investigated populations the most.
Essential oil from Allium sativum was isolated and investigated for its repellent, insecticidal, ovipositional and egg hatching inhibition activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). A. sativum essential oil repelled bruchid adults at a very low concentration in choice oviposition assay. A. sativum essential oil caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults in a concentration dependent manner. Oviposition potency of C. chinensis adults was reduced significantly when sublethal concentrations of A. sativum essential oil were applied by fumigation and contact method. In chronic toxic-ity assay, A. sativum essential oil reduced F1 progeny emergence, damage and weight loss in seeds. Findings of the present study suggest that A. sativum essential oil can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is a shrub of the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region. The material used for herbal purposes includes lavender flowers (Lavandula flores) containing essential oil (3%), anthocyanins, phytosterols, sugars, minerals, and tannins. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil of lavender is variable and depends on genotype, growing location, climatic conditions, propagation, and morphological features. The essential oil contains over 300 chemical compounds. The dominant components are linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, acetate lavandulol, oci-mene, and cineole. Lavender essential oil has good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and a significant positive effect on the digestive and nervous systems. Lavender extract prevents dementia and may inhibit the growth of cancer cells, while lavender hydrolate is recommended for the treatment of skin problems and burns.
The objective of current study was to determine the chemical constituents and fumigant toxicity of essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from dry fruit of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller). The chemical composition of the essential oil was assessed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Constituents of the oil were determined as α-pinene (1.6%) and limonene (3.3%), fenchone (27.3%), estragol (3.9%), and (E)-anethole (61.1%). The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil was tested on larvae of the stored product insect Trogoderma granarium Everts. The mortality of larvae was tested at different concentrations ranging from 31.2 to 531.2 μl/l air and at different exposure times (24 and 48 h). Probit analysis showed that LC50 and LC90 following a 48 h-exposure period for essential oil were 38.4 and 84.6 μl/l, respectively. These results showed that the essential oil from F. vulgare may be applicable to the management of populations of stored-product insects.
Due to toxic and adverse side effects of synthetic drugs, traditional herbal medicine has the potential as a source of new bioactive molecules. That is why we investigated this research, searching new anti-inflammatory drugs from plants growing around us. The anti-inflammatory effect of the mixture of different plants used in traditional medicine (Alkanna tinctoria, Rubia tinctorum and Artemisia herba alba) were studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema (oil mixture extract 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg). These material reduces carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats and shows inhibition after 4 h especially at a concentration 200 mg/ kg. Oil mixture extract were investigated by capillary GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices revealed the presence of about 17 compounds: artemisol, epiglobulol and α-bisabolol are the main constituents as well as volatile oil and other triterpenes: taraxasterol, stigmasterol, ursan-12-ene, olean-12-ene, betulin, germincol, lupeol acetate and lupeol. Other heterocyclic compounds: moropholine and piperidinol were also identified
Wielkość i jakość plonu pszczelnika mołdawskiego (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) Cz. I. Ziele
Określono plon handlowy ziela oraz długość okresu wegetacji roślin pszczelnika mołdawskiego w zależności od badanej formy botanicznej. Rośliny o niebieskich kwiatach charakteryzowały się krótszym okresem wegetacji w porównaniu z roślinami o białej barwie kwiatów. Istotnie większy plon ziela uzyskano w uprawie formy o niebieskiej barwie kwiatów. Wykazano istotny wpływ formy botanicznej pszczelnika mołdawskiego na wielkość plonu roślin. W poddanym analizie laboratoryjnej zielu określono zawartość wybranych metabolitów wtórnych. Wykazano zróżnicowaną zawartość badanych związków biologicznie czynnych w obu formach botanicznych pszczelnika mołdawskiego. Dowiedziono, że ziele formy o niebieskiej barwie kwiatów dostarcza surowca zasobnego w olejek eteryczny, flawonoidy oraz garbniki, natomiast rośliny o białym zabarwieniu kwiatów stanowią głównie surowiec fenolokwasowy.
Nowadays, safety of chemical preservatives has been questioned by a big number of consumers. Traditionally used preservatives often cause skin irritation and lead to allergenic reactions. Growing demands for more natural and preservative-free cosmetics promoted an idea of the replacement of synthetic preservatives with essential oils (EOs) of antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial effect of essential oil depends on content, concentration and interactions between the main active compounds. Effective preservatives should be characterized by a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity at a minimum concentration. Formulations containing both types of preservatives: essential oil and a synthetic one have been tested and proposed as a compromise that allows for reducing concentration of both components due to their synergistic activity. Although most essential oils are regarded as safe, some of them may cause risk of contact allergy or phototoxic reaction. A well balanced risk-benefit assessment of essential oils is one of the great challenges for scientists or health policy authorities. This paper presents current state of knowledge on essential oils focused on their antimicrobial properties, the assessment of their efficacy and safety as cosmetic preservatives.
Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Two Varieties of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)
The aim of this work was an evaluation of the antifungal activity of essential oils from two cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.): ‘Wala’ and ‘Fine Verde’. The essential oils from dried, ground herbs were extracted with the hydro-distillation method using Deryng apparatus. The composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography. The antifungal activity of the oils was tested against the following strains: Alternaria sp., Aspergillus flavus, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium herbarum, Eurotium amstelodami and Eurotium chevalieri. The disc diffusion agar method was applied. Each oil was used in two doses, 10 and 5 μl/disc. A disc (6 mm dia.), soaked with oil, was placed on agar plates, which had been previously inoculated with spores of the different strains. The diameters of fungal growth inhibition zones were measured after 72h of incubation at 25°C and expressed in millimeters. The obtained results showed that the diameter of the mycelium growth inhibition zone significantly depended on the source of oil, the dose of oil, and the species of fungi. The essential oil from the ‘Wala’ variety was more effective against the tested fungi than the oil from ‘Fine Verde’ and the inhibition zones were greater when the dose of the oils was higher. E. chevalieri was the most sensitive to both of the oils and A. flavus was the most resistant. The differences in the antifungal activity of the tested oils were probably the result of their different chemical compositions. In comparison with the ‘Fine Verde’ oil, the oil from ‘Wala’ had more than twice the amount of linalool, more 1,8-cineole, and contained geraniol and methyl chavicol. In the conditions of the experiment both oils showed greater antifungal activity than cycloheximide (actidion) and methyl thiophanate (Topsin M 500 SC) used as controls.