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This paper presents the results of research, conducted using a questionnaire form, in dynamically developing industrial enterprises located in the economic zones of southern Poland. The results of these studies were referred to research carried out in public utility entities located in the same geographical area. These studies concerned, among others, the development of human and intellectual capital, which is why analysis was carried out on the following issues: the level of cooperation between colleagues, the level of exchange of information and experience among colleagues, the manager understands and facilitates the flow of information among colleagues, the degree of computerization in the workplace and the implementation of solutions in the company aimed at preserving the acquired knowledge and experience.


The basis for the functioning of every organization and achieving the set goals are employees. It is they who shape the image, create the organizational culture and reputation of the company in the environment. Their competences, knowledge and skills determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization’s operations. Thanks to their work, products and services are created that meet social needs and thus organizational progress. The aim of this work was to conduct research on the organization’s ability to identify and retain the best employees, the ability to promote desired attitudes and behaviors, as well as to create a friendly and rewarding work environment that are key factors for business success. Updating the knowledge possessed by employees and developing new skills is often crucial in keeping the organization on the market.

kompetencji społecznych. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Liberi Libri; 2012, s. 33-70. 9. Gadecka W, Piskorz-Ogórek K, Regin K, Kowalski I. Social competence of mental health nurses. Pol. Ann. Med. 2015; 22: 105-109. 10. Zaborniak-Sobczak M, Walicka-Cupryś K, Ćwirlej-Sozańska A. i wsp.: Kompetencje społeczne fizjoterapeutów – wyniki badań pilotażowych. Post. Rehabil. 2014; 2: 5-12 11. Tyszkiewicz-Bandur M, Walkiewicz M, Tartas M, Bankiewicz-Nakielska J. Kompetencje społeczne i emocjonalne wśród studentów kierunków medycznym. Med. Rodz. 2017; 20(1): 25-30. 12. Gotlib J, Cieślak I


Green areas located on the peripheries of cities have the potential to become green public spaces not only of recreational but also educational character, promoting at the same time the knowledge about environmental protection. The cities included in the research belong to the małopolskie voivodeship (Lesser Poland voivodeship). With the use of geospatial data of land cover, as well as territorial forms of environmental protection, it was pointed that 48.4% of forest, wooded and shrub green areas located within city borders are covered by a form of environmental protection, thus being a valuable resource of significant nature potential. Making such spaces available in a conscious and attractive way is presented on the example of projects implemented in the cities of: Stary Sącz, Nowy Targ and Kraków. The presented projects were used to make recommendations for city authorities to create green public spaces.


Aim. Assessment of the effectiveness of therapeutic education conducted by nurses working in the internal medicine wards in patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in the context of the sense of coherence.

Material and methods. The survey was carried out among 100 nurses working in the internal medicine wards. In the assessment of the effectiveness of therapeutic education, the authors' survey questionnaire was used, whereas the sense of coherence of the surveyed nurses was measured by means of SOC-29 life orientation questionnaire.

Results. Therapeutic education conducted by nurses who completed postgraduate studies was a more planned process and covered more topics. A high sense of coherence correlates with a wider range of educational interactions. Over half of the surveyed nurses (56%) showed an average sense of coherence and 44% - a high sense of coherence, what was significant for the effectiveness of conducted health education. The number of encountered factors hindering the education of patients depends on the level of the sense of coherence. The surveyed with a high sense of coherence face more difficulties than those with an average sense of coherence.

Conclusions. The nurses declaring the implementation of therapeutic education of patients used the knowledge gained during postgraduate education. Those who completed such studies covered a wider range of topics during the education process. A high sense of coherence is an important factor, significant in the implementation of the educational function of the nurse, and the improvement of the effectiveness of this kind of education can be achieved thanks to wider consideration of these issues at universities and postgraduate education.


The objective of the proposed experiment was to determine changes in the content of vitamin C in the vegetable material (fresh and processed) during a certain period of time, and to determine the optimal expiry date of a product (in terms of the vitamin C content), as well as to introduce students to common factors adversely affecting the content of vitamin C in food products (with a special emphasis on oxidizing enzymes). The research revealed that regardless of the type of cucumbers (fresh, pickled in brine or in vinegar), the content of vitamin C is rapidly dropping after the destruction of the cellular structure (grating, slicing etc.). In the case of fresh cucumbers, it is a process determined by two factors: release and activation of ascorbinase from the destroyed cellular structure and availability of oxygen. Low pH values in the remaining cases reduce the effect of ascorbinase, and a decrease in the vitamin C content is related to the process of oxidation with atmospheric oxygen.


The article presents the case study of the Mediaschool Film Festival held in Łódź, a large Polish post-industrial and post-socialist city. The authors’ main goals were to establish the number of the festival visitors, as well as investigate their structure, main motivations to attend the festival, and the level of satisfaction with the festival services. As a result, the authors draw conclusions concerning the role of the festival as a place of the film culture consumption, as well as its role in the development of social capital. The basic method of study was the survey, conducted among the festival visitors in 2011. It contained questions concerning the structure of the festival audience, the evaluation of the event, and the main motivations to attend it. The method was adapted from the event studies, which was a tactical move in order to place the research on the borderline between cultural geography and event studies. Other methods typical of cultural geography and used in the present study included participant observation and semi-structured interview with the festival organisers. The event is one of the urban festivals created after the fall of communism. It is visited mainly by young people, often connected with the Łódź film school. First of all, the festival satisfies the need for contact with culture and film art, thus contributing to the creation of social capital and the development of the film school in Łódź (a part of the cluster of film institutions in the city). The event is a meeting point for film people from Łódź, Poland and abroad. Thus it could be also described as an obligatory point of passage in film-related network of connections.


Dramatic increase in confocal microscopy observation output has been gained by optimization of a simple trypan blue and aniline blue dual-stain and its application to two model pathosystems: Pseudoperonospora cubensiscucumber and Phytophthora infestans-tomato. Comparison of two dual-stain methods for confocal microscopy studies of P. cubensis-challenged cucumber leaves indicated the 'mild' approach most successful. This methodology provides simultaneous detection of different pathogen structures layered with the plant defense reactions. Moreover, ImageJ-assisted quantification of plant defense responses renders this method useful for addressing the host plant resistance reactions, as well as investigating the given isolate's pathogenicity. Application of this method for the P. infestans-challenged tomato leaf samples resulted in detection of several fungal infection structures, along with plant defense responses. The dual-stain also enabled detection of a peculiar aniline blue-sensitive material in the pathogen cell walls at the area of its hyphae emerging through the leaf stomata. Results presented herein indicate this method is applicable for detailed (possibly quantitative) investigations of multiple plant-fungal pathosystems.

, Zwolińska J, i wsp. Leczenie zachowawcze wysiłkowego nietrzymania moczu u kobiet. Przegląd Medyczny Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego. 2006; 3: 227-230. 6. Sherburn M, Guthrie JR, Dudley EC i wsp. Is incontinence associated with menopause? Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 4: 628-633. 7. Ogórek-Tęcza B, Pulit A. Nietrzymanie moczu u kobiet a zaburzenia depresyjne. Pielęg. XXI w. 2012; 1: 25-29 8. Prażmowska B, Puto G, Gergont B. Wpływ nietrzymania moczu na satysfakcję z życia kobiet po 45 roku życia. Problemy Hig. Epidemiol. 2012; 93(4):787. 9. Wszystko o nietrzymaniu moczu, http

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