., 1997. Odpady powęglowe i ich zastosowanie w inżynierii lądowej i wodnej. (Mining wastes and their use in civil and water engineering). Kraków, Wydaw. AR: 199.
Skarżyńska K. M., Burda H., 1988. Analiza kontroli jakości zagęszczania nasypów wykonanych z nieprzepalonych odpadów węgla kamiennego. (Analysis of the quality control of compaction in embankments made of unburnt coal mining wastes) Gosp. Wod. , 10: 231-233.
Skarżyńska K. M., Burda H., Kozielska-Sroka E., Michalski P., 1987. Laboratory and site investigations
Electricity and heat have been produced in Poland by the combustion of coal. Ash-slag, a by-product of this process, has been mainly deposited in landfills. Until the end of 2011, about 258 million tonnes of ash-slag have been deposited in landfills. Herbaceous plant and soil samples were taken from four directions (east, west, south and north) in three locations on the landfill embankment: base, middle and top. The negative influence of furnace waste landfill on herbaceous plants was confirmed by the phytoaccumulation indexes (WF) of the examined elements: WF Cd - medium to intensive; WF Pb - low to medium; WF Zn - low to intensive and WF Cu - low to medium.
.09.2014 - date of access).
13. Website: http://odpady.nfosigw.gov.pl/gfx/odpady/userfiles/files/10_ spotkanie/1_ersntyoung_ sudomir_prezentacja_26042012.pdf (20.09.2014 - date of access).
14. Ustawa z dnia 1 lipca 2011 r. o zmianie ustawy o utrzymaniu czystości i porządku w gminach oraz niektórych innych ustaw (Dz. U. 2012, poz. 391).
15. Ustawy z dnia 11 maja 2001 r. o obowiązkach przedsiębiorców w zakresie gospodarowania niektórymi odpadami oraz o opłacie produktowej (t.j. Dz. U. 2007, nr 90, poz. 607 ze zm
Natalia Kamińska-Pietrzak, Natalia Howaniec and Adam Smoliński
Increasing energy demand, limited resources of fossil fuels and environmental aspects are the main rationales of the research efforts aiming at wider utilization of renewable resources and waste in energy generation systems. Gasification technologies are based on thermochemical processing of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels to gas of the composition dependent on kind of gasification agent and operating parameters used. The range of applications of the product gas includes basically chemical and petrochemical industries. Its utilization in power generation systems is also of industrial interest since the environmental impact of gasification technologies is lower and the process efficiency is higher than of coal-fired power plants and it enables to utilize wide range of fuels, including fossil fuels, biomass, industrial waste and various fuel blends. One of the most important operational issues related with thermochemical processing of biomass and waste is the formation of tars, which reduces the energy efficiency of the process and causes technical problems in a system operation. The amount and quality of tars depends on the chemical composition of a fuel, a gasification agent used and its ratio to fuel flow, process temperature and pressure as well as the construction of a gasifier. In the paper review of the research on the influence of operating parameters and kind of feedstock on tar formation and composition in the process of gasification and co-gasification is presented.
Wolf Schluchter and Magdalena Rybaczewska- Błażejowska
Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt.
4. Den Boer (Szpadt) E., Den Boer J., Jager J. (2005), The use of life cycle assessment tool for the development of integrated waste management strategies for cities and regions with rapid growing economies LCA-IWM, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt.
5. D’Obyrn K., Szalińska E. (2005), Odpady komunalne - zbiórka, recycling, unieszkodliwianie odpadów komunalnych i komunalnopodobnych, Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej, Kraków.
6. ISO 14040:2006 Environmental management - Life cycle
Kamil Witaszek, Krzysztof Pilarski, Agnieszka Pilarska and Robert Mazur
Each year communities generate large quantities of municipal waste, including green waste such as grass and leaves. According to the waste catalogue, they may be treated as belonging to the group 20 02 (garden and park waste), and more specifically, to the group 20 02 01 – biodegradable waste. The aim of the study is to characterise the development directions of the green waste generated in the municipalities. Skilful management of this waste is extremely important. The following work focuses on three different technologies that enable efficient management of the green waste: methane fermentation, pelletising and composting. According to many authors, the most common technologies are pelletising and composting. In contrast, biogas fermentation of green waste in the municipalities is performed on a much smaller scale than other technologies. This may be due to the fact that this technology requires a significant expertise and is more complicated in terms of technology
The article discusses the transformation of the municipal waste management sector in Poland, taking place during 2011- 2013, upon the case study of the Świętokrzyskie Region. The pivotal assumptions of the new model of municipal waste management in Poland are: the change of the owner of municipal waste that became communities, the improvement of the municipal waste collection, transportation and processing, and finally regionalization that means the division of the territory of Poland into municipal waste management regions. The research conducted among local authorities of the Świętokrzyskie Region has revealed that the system solutions applied in the field of municipal waste management, being currently implemented in Poland, though they are not free from socio-economic threats, lead to the fulfilment of the waste hierarchy, including the increasing levels of recycling and the reduction of bio-waste disposal.
Elżbieta Musztyfaga, Cezary Kabała, Agata Urszula Bielińska, Mateusz Cuske and Bernard Gałka
Analysis of the top-soil total content of heavy metals was carried out inthe vicinity of large copper ore tailings pound in the south-western Poland with regard to soil properties, direction and distance from the tailings pound. None of the soils under study ex-ceeded the limits admitted in the official standards for soil quality, but the assessment made in accordance with IUNG-guidelines to soil contamination determination showed that more than half of the monitoring sites have elevated metal content, Cu, in par-ticular. The results confirmed high effectiveness of dust control preventing its eolian spread from the tailings pound.
Municipal waste landfills are a source of microbial contamination. The aim of the study was to determine the degree of air pollution by bacteria, including the coli group, fungi and actinomycetes. The object of the analysis was the landfill of the Department for the Recovery and Storage of Municipal Waste in Leśno Górne. Analyses were performed in the four seasons of the year, taking into account the weather, status of the number of microorganisms and degree of risk to human health and life.