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Treatment of the Processing Wastewaters Containing Heavy Metals with the Method Based on Flotation
The aim of the studies carried out at full technological scale was to indicate optimal systems of the two-stage precipitation and coagulation (PIX 113 - SAX 18, PAX XL1 - SAX 18, ALCAT 102 - lime milk and SAX 18 - PAX 16) in the process of eliminating heavy metals from wastewaters made in the processing plant producing sub-systems for domestic appliances. Precipitated pollutions were thickened by flocculation and separated by hydrogen peroxide enhanced pressure flotation. The experimental installation of maximal flow capacity: 10.0 m3/d consisted of: the storage-equalization tank, the processing pipe reactor, the pressure flotation station, and the reagent preparation and dosing station. Optimal doses of reagents and a flocculent as well as pressure and saturation time were defined for which maximal reductions in the load of heavy metals were achieved. The usefulness of hydrogen peroxide as a means of enhancing flotation was tested. The use of two-stage precipitation permitted the reduction in heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Sn, Zn), eg by applying ALCAT 102 - lime milk at the level exceeding 80%.
Elżbieta Hallmann, Renata Tomczak-Wandzel and Krystyna Mędrzycka
Combined Chemical-Biological Treatment of Effluents from Soil Remediation Processes by Surfactants Solutions Flushing
In recent years combined chemical-biological wastewater treatment processes have received increasing interest. In the present study wastewater from soil remediation processes were treated by means of 1-step processes like Fenton, aerobic degradation and 2-steps combined method. The effluents resulting from soil remediation processes consist of high surfactant concentration solutions, mobilized oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The effectiveness of wastewater treatment was evaluated by COD reduction and surfactant removal. The application of Fenton process alone showed around 80% of COD and surfactant removal, and in case of aerobic process only 60% of COD and 50% of surfactant removal was accomplished. However, the maximum COD reduction and surfactant removal from wastewater samples, above 90%, was obtained in aerobic degradation with Fenton process as pretreatment. Thus, the Fenton process could be effectively applied as a pretreatment step to improve the reduction of both COD and surfactant from wastewater resulting from soil remediation.
Agnieszka Karczmarczyk, Sławomir Skowron, Józef Mosiej and Anna Baryła
The needs and possibilities of constructing on site wastewater treatment plants in forester's lodges
Forest lodges are often located far from settlements which makes that water supply and sewage treatment problems must be treated in an individual manner. Domestic waste waters from free-standing buildings not connected to sewerage systems should be collected in septic tanks and transported to sewage treatment plants or treated in place of their production in the so-called on-site wastewater treatment plants. Based on data from 33 forest commissions subjected to the Regional Authority of State Forests in Olsztyn an assessment of the equipment of forest lodges in water and waste water infrastructure. Water supply and waste water management was the subject of analyses. From among 795 analysed forest lodges 59% were supplied in water from the water mains out of which 11 lodges possessed also their own water intake. The remaining 41% of lodges had their own intakes of potable water. Sixty percent of forest lodges were equipped with septic tanks. Slightly more than a half of them had a contract for waste water disposal, others had bills for such services. From among analysed lodges 18% were connected to sewer systems and 22% had on site wastewater treatment plants. Technology of on site wastewater treatment was presented in this paper. Their advantages and disadvantages were discussed and practical solutions to be applied in analysed forest lodges were presented.
Effectiveness of Removal of Humic Substances and Heavy Metals from Landfill Leachates During their Pretreatment Process in the SBR Reactor
In the paper the removal efficiency of heavy metals as well as humic compounds, in the treatment of leachate mixed with municipal waste in a sequencing batch reactor was studied. Also, the accumulation of those metals in the activated sludge was examined. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of contamination with humic compounds, for Bx ranging from 0.23 to 0.45 mg COD mg-1 d.m. can reach 71÷74%. An increase in the concentrations of heavy metals in the activated sludge was recorded for Bx in the range 0.23÷1.64 mg COD mg-1 d.m. The amount of heavy metals in the effluent of the SBR in carrying out the process at Bx = 0.23÷0.96 mg COD mg-1 d.m. does not limit their discharge into water and sewer system.
Development and First Year Operation of Extended Wastewater Treatment Plant in Dobron
The aim of the investigation was characterizing and operation assessment of the wastewater treatment plant in Dobron taking into consideration its flow capacity, before (350 m3/d) and after development including building of the second technological pipe with the same flow capacity (350 m3/d), finished in September, 2009. Concise description of the applied wastewater treatment technology and results of investigations concerning flow rates of wastewater within last few years, are presented. Example results of wastewater composition analysis and reached treatment conversion are described. Analysis results of screenings, sand removed from sand traps and stabilized sludge are shown.
Photocatalysis process belongs to an advanced oxidation technology for the removal of persistent organic compounds and microorganisms from water. It is the technology with a great potential, a low-cost, environmental friendly and sustainable treatment technology to align with the “zero” waste scheme in the water/wastewater industry. At present, the main technical barriers that impede its full commercialization remained on the post-recovery of the catalyst particles after water treatment. This paper reviews the background of the process and photooxidation mechanisms of the organic pollutants and microorganisms. The review of the latest progresses of engineered-photocatalysts, photo-reactor systems, and the kinetics and modeling associated with the photocatalytic and photodisinfection water and wastewater treatment process, has been presented. A number of potential and commercial photocatalytic reactor configurations are discussed, in particular the photocatalytic membrane reactors. The effects of key photo-reactor operation parameters and water quality on the photoprocess performances in terms of the mineralization and disinfection are assessed.
Zai-jun Xin, Xiu-zhen Li, Søren Nielsen, Zhong-zheng Yan, Yuan-qing Zhou, Yue Jia, Ying-ying Tang, Wen-yong Guo and Yong-guang Sun
Effect of Stubble Heights and Treatment Duration Time on the Performance of Water Dropwort Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWS)
Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) with Water Dropwort (Oenanthe javanica) were established in winter to investigate their potential role in the purification of eutrophicated water, and to identify the effects of different stubble heights of the Water Dropwort on the performance of the FTWs. The results of the experiments demonstrated: The Water Dropwort FTWs were effective in buffering the pH of the experimental water. The Water Dropwort FTWs were efficient in purifying eutrophicated water, with removal rate for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+ - N), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3- - N) at 91.3, 58.0, 94.6, and 95.5% in the 15-day experiment, respectively. No significant difference in the purification effect was found among different stubble heights of Water Dropwort FTWs. Significant differences between the zero control and the FTWs were found for the removal of TP in the first 11 days; and for the removal of NH4+ - N in the first 4 days. No significant difference was found between the zero control and the FTWs for NO3- - N in the first 4 days, but significant difference was detected after day 4. The optimum treatment duration time for the FTWs with Water Dropwort will depend on the nutrients to be removed. These results will provide basis for further application of the FTWs at large scale, as well as for future studies on the mechanism of nutrient removal process.
Roman Babko, Tatyana Kuzmina, Grzegorz Łagód and Katarzyna Jaromin-Gleń
Several experiments were performed in the laboratory condition using an SBR bioreactor modelling the expected conditions, created by malfunction of certain bioreactor elements, thus the different oxygen condition. In the course of the experiments, the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, nitrates(III), nitrates(V), TOC, and TC were systematically measured. Besides physico-chemical parameters, the structure of activated sludge community was analyzed. In the samples, the number and species composition of protozoa (ciliates) were determined. Each of the three measuring series conducted for various types of process conditions was repeated three times. The activated sludge used for inoculation of the bioreactor was sampled at Hajdow WWTP in Lublin. The results obtained are the average of three repetitions of every experimental series. On this ground, we may conclude that the number of ciliates shows a high correlation with the O2 concentration, pH and TOC.