A historical paint manufactory in Staicele, Latvia (1967), was using local resources – colour earth. Oil paint composition consisted of pigment, drying oil, varnish and siccative. It had two different tones that are obtained by using natural colour earth pigments: ochre and its burnt form (burnt umber). Pigment quality was analyzed using historical documents, modern pigment tests, and manufactory technology. Chemical composition, particle size, and pigment tone were determined, and the coating ability was calculated. A palette of oil paints based on the historical recipes for restoring Staicele oil paints was created. Properties of colour earth pigments were compared to specimens taken from the local source of iron that is located near the old paint factory. Results provide a historical and technological insight as well as insight in the properties of the basic paint composition.
Chernozem soil samples from the east of Austria have been packed into columns in order to investigate the effects of mineral fertilization on the composition of water, released to deeper layers. A solution imitating NPK fertilization was added on top of water-saturated columns, and washed down with 150 cm3 portions (about 0.1 pore volumes) every day except weekends, for 2 months. The eluates were collected and analyzed by ICP and AAS methods. After about one pore volume, a strong peak in alkali, alkaline earths, and sulfate occurred in the eluates, due to ion exchange with the fertilizer solution. After this, most concentrations in the eluates approached a steady state again, but lower than the levels met before. After a period of drying, the release of K and S, as well as P in 2 of 3 cases, increased, whereas the release of Fe and Mn decreased. Before the eluates entered the sample collection vessels, ochre precipitation scavenged many solutes (Cr > Al > Pb > P > V > Fe), but left Mo-Sr-Mg-K-Se-B rather untouched.
Zuzana Dakos, Daniel Kupka, Michal Kovařík, Katarína Jablonovská, Václav Krištúfek and Marcela Achimovičová
BIGHAM J.M., CARLSON, L., MURAD, E.: Schwertmannite, a new iron oxyhydroxy- sulphate from Pyhäsalmi, Finland and other localities. Mineral. Mag., 58, 1994, 641-648.
BIGHAM J.M., NORDSTROM D.K.: Iron and aluminum hydroxysulfates from acid sulfate waters. Rev. Mineral Geochem., 40, 2000, 351-403.
BIGHAM, J.M.: Mineralogy of ochre deposits formed by sulfide oxidation. In:
BLOWES, D.W., LAMBOR, J.L. (Eds.), The Environmental Geochemistry of Sulfide Mine-wastes. Mineralogical
Raluca A. Cristache, Ion Sandu, Viorica Vasilache and Oana Cristache
This study presents a physicochemical analysis on the orthodox icon “The grieving Mother” from XIXth century. The icon is made by an anonymus painter, in tempera pigments, on a lime wood support, Tillia cordata. God’s Mother is represented from one side, only the bust, with the head down, framed by a white border. The predominant colors of the icon are ultramarine blue, ocher, red-brown, with silver leaf. The edges of the panel were painted with tempera pigments as the border. On the right edge an inscription in blue ink, can be seen, but is unreadable. The painting layer has gaps, fissures, detachments, dirt, degraded and scaly varnish. The panel is made from a single board, transversally cut, without crossbeams. The study is based on the identification of some archeometric characteristics of the wood panel and of the pigment layer. To determin painting materials and the conservation state, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (Micro-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) were employed. Using this methods we identify the pigments used and the state of degradation of the panel. The FTIR spectrum analysis showed that the pigment layer contains schellac varnish, ultramarine blue and dust, a conclusion supported by SEM-EDX analysis.
Eva Tillová, Lenka Kuchariková, Mária Chalupová, Juraj Belan, Alan Vaško and Adrián Herčko
Colour Metallography is a set of light metallographic microscopy methodologies that utilize phase colour contrast as a source of new structure information compared to conventional techniques. In many cases, colour contrast can be induced where no identifiable phase contrast is obtained by conventional techniques. With the help of colour contrast, we gain new information on the structure of Al-Si alloys, especially intermetallic phases, in which the benefits of its use in casting quality control are of benefit.
Blue-yellow contrast is definitely more pronounced than dark grey or light grey contrast. There is no substantial reproducible colour reproduction, since it is irrelevant whether the two phases are distinguished by blue-yellow or green-ocher contrast. When using the colour contrast, the structural components differ not only according to their microscopic appearance, but also based on the knowledge of the chemical composition of alloys, interactions between structural components, knowledge of the possible influence of Al-alloys structure (e.g. refining, modifications, heat treatment).
Colour contrast in quality control of Al-Si alloys was applied to AlSiMg cast alloy (AlSi7Mg0.3; AlSi7MgTi; AlSi10MgMn; etc.)
Andrea Lančaričová, Michaela Havrlentová, Darina Muchová and Adriána Bednárová
Oil content, fatty acids profile, acid and saponification values of poppy seeds grown on two localities of the Slovak Republic were evaluated in the study. Statistically significant effects of locality, genotype and their interaction (P < 0.05) for numerous descriptors were proved by non-parametric tests. Results confirmed that variation in the analysed parameters was influenced by the colour of seeds. Ochre variety Redy contained the highest oil level in both localities (49.9 and 52.4%) and linoleic acid level (74.3 and 71.6%). White-seeded Racek and Albín had the highest acid value (2.8 and 2.4% of free fatty acids) and grey-seeded Malsar and blue-seeded Maratón contained the highest saponification value. Buddha, a high-morphine poppy variety, differed significantly in all monitored parameters. High negative interrelation between linoleic and oleic acids levels was observed. Oil content was positively correlated with linoleic acid and negatively with oleic acid. Weather conditions at the end of vegetation influenced the accumulation of oil and essential linoleic acid.
Eccles, Jeremy. "Othello in ochre". The Sydney Review October, 1989.
Foakes, R. A., ed. William Shakespeare A Midsummer Night's Dream . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Gagliardi, Jason. "Shrew Falls a Bit Flat". Dance Australia 60 (1992): 48-49.
Hall, Fernau. "East Meets West". The Daily Telegraph . (London) 1 June, 1987.
Hoad, Brian. "Love's fine wit". The Bulletin . 23 July, 1991
Colluvial soils (in Polish: gleby deluwialne) are an important part of the soil cover in young morainic landscapes of northern Poland. They evolved as a result of the accumulation of eroded material at the foot of the slopes and bottoms of closed depressions. The aim of this study was to determine the systematic position of colluvial soils commonly found in the Chełmno and Brodnica Lake District, northern Poland. Ten soil pits located in different types of landscapes were selected for testing soil properties. The colluvial material is characterized by diversified properties: thickness, particle-size distribution, organic carbon content, color, pH, and base saturation. As a result, the investigated soils represent broad spectrum of typological units according to Polish Soil Classification (2011). Some of them contain epipedons mollic and meet the criteria of colluvial chernozemic soils. They were found mainly on buried black earths in areas with small slope inclinations. Many pedons contain pale colored acidic colluvial material with low base saturation and low organic carbon content and must be classified as other types: arenosols (in Polish: arenosole) or rusty soils (in Polish: gleby rdzawe). These soils occur mostly in areas with intensive relief and overlay the different soil types, including rusty soil and organic soils. They are formed as a result of soils lessivés and rusty soils truncation. An introduction of the additional units of “proper colluvial soils” which have epipedon ochric, and “rusty-colluvial soils” with endopedon sideric to the next edition of Polish Soil Classification would enable a more precise expression of the genesis of these soils in the type rank. Moreover, the definition of chernozemic colluvial soils could be extended to colluvial soils with umbric horizon. Classifying soils derived from colluvial material as soils of other types leads to the disappearance of this units on maps and underestimation of the impact of denudation on the soil cover.
Viera Vavrecková, Michaela Tichá and Zlata Ondrúšová
December 10, 2017, from http://www.uzis.cz/en/category/tematicke-rady/institutesinfants-homes-children-and-other-institutions-children.
VOP [Public Defender of Rights] (2013). Zpráva ze systematických návštev: Zdravotnická zarízení poskytující péci ohroženým detem do 3 let veku, kojenecké ústavy [on-line]. Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.ochrance.cz/fileadmin/userupload/ochranaosob/2013/NZ-252012-kojenecke-ustavy.pdf.
Vykopalová, H. (2016). Social Risk Management as a Strategy in the Fight Against Poverty and Social Exclusion
BHARATI, A. 1962: The Ochre Robe. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
BHARATI, A. 1974: “Hare Krishna vs Shiva Shiva”. In. The Illustrated Weekly of India, March 17/1974.
BHARATI, A. 1976: The Light at the Center: Context and Pretext of Modern Mysticism. Santa Barbara, California: Ross-Erickson.
BHARATI, A. 1981: Hindu Views and Ways and the Hindu-Muslim Interface: An Anthropological Assessment. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.
BROOKS, CH. R. 1989: The Hare