Izhodišča: Nekatere poklicne skupine so zaradi narave dela ranljivejše za razvoj poklicnega stresa, izgorelosti in psihofizičnih zdravstvenih težav. Cilj raziskave je bil opredeliti razlike v doživljanju poklicnega stresa ter proučiti sovpadanje zdravstvenih težav in izgorevanja pri zaposlenih v petih različnih poklicnih skupinah.
Metode: V raziskavo je bilo vključenih 258 udeležencev, zaposlenih v gradbeni, zdravstveni in v predelovalni dejavnosti, razvrščenih v poklicne skupine: delavci v proizvodnji (N=56 (20%), 56% moških), administrativno osebje (N=58 (20%), 18% moških), zdravstveni (N=65 (23%), 16% moških), tehnični (N=51(18%), 87% moških) in vodstveni kadri (N=55 (19%), 68% moških). Udeleženci so izpolnili vprašalnike o sociodemografskih značilnostih, zdravstvenih težavah, stresu na delovnem mestu (OSI) in o izgorelosti (OLBI).
Rezultati: V primerjavi z drugimi poklicnimi profili so delavci v proizvodnji in zdravstveni kadri izražali največjo stopnjo stresa na delovnem mestu. Pri zdravstvenih delavcih so prevladovali viri stresa, povezani z visokimi delovnimi zahtevami in omejeno avtonomnostjo, pri zaposlenih v proizvodnji pa izpostavljenost škodljivim okoljskim dejavnikom. Najpogostejše zdravstvene težave so bile utrujenost pri 56,9% zdravstvenih in 50% proizvodnih delavcev, glavoboli in težave z vidom pri 51,8% proizvodnih delavcih ter bolečine v kostno-mišičnem sistemu pri 48,2% proizvodnih delavcih. Pri zdravstvenih in administrativnih delavcih je bilo največ statistično pomembnih povezav med psihofizičnimi zdravstvenimi težavami in izgorelostjo. Približno desetina zaposlenih v vseh poklicnih skupinah je kazala znake visoke izgorelosti.
Zaključki: Zdravstveni kadri in delavci v proizvodnji so se v primerjavi s preostalimi poklicnimi skupinami izkazali kot ranljivejši za razvoj prekomernega stresa na delovnem mestu. Sopojavljanje zdravstvenih težav in izgorelosti je bilo najizrazitejše pri tehničnih in zdravstvenih kadrih.
The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the interdependence between labour productivity and the occupational structure of human capital in a spatial cross-section. Research indicates (see Fischer 2009) the possibility to assess the impact of the quality of human capital (measured by means of the level of education) on labour productivity in a spatial cross-section.
This study attempts to thoroughly analyse the issue, assuming that apart from the level of education, the course of education (occupation) can also be a significant factor determining labour productivity in a spatial cross-section. The data used in this paper concerning labour force structure in major occupational groups in a regional cross-section comes from a Labour Force Survey.
The data source specificity enables the assessment of labour force occupational specialisation at the regional level and the estimation of this specialisation at the subregional or county level.
An in-depth analysis of the occupational structure of the labour market in a spatial cross-section is an important theoretical and practical area of study necessary for the development of effective labour market policies and the education system.
The main purpose of the article is to examine workers’ mobility expectations under the risk of investments in human capital. We focus on the earnings risk associated with investments in human capital. In particular, we attempt to identify the specific risk for occupational groups and then conduct a descriptive analysis of the mobility expectations in occupational groups with different risk levels. The empirical analysis is based on the cross-sectional data from the survey Bilans Kapitału Ludzkiego (Human Capital Balance).
Purpose: The paper analyses etatist and liberal economic attitudes in Poland, their changes after the last economic crisis, and the differences in this respect between socio-occupational groups with a particular focus on managers, professionals, and business owners, on the one hand, and other working and non-working groups, on the other hand.
Methodology: Individual-level data from three representative surveys conducted in 2012,2 2016, and 2017 on stratified random samples of the whole adult Polish population are analyzed.
Findings: Despite public legitimization of economy based on private ownership and the free market, Polish public opinion still shows strong preference for public ownership and state interventionism. This preference slowly diminishes. It differs between various socio-occupational groups: managers, professionals, and business owners are more liberal than others, especially non-working people and farmers.
Research implications: Since strengthening the regulatory and controlling functions of the government in economic life is the recent tendency in Poland and other countries, the slowly growing liberal attitudes may counteract this direction. So far, however, the Polish public opinion strongly supports governmental intervention in the economy.
Originality: So far, no one wrote a similar analysis of changes in etatist and liberal economic attitudes in the post-crisis Poland.
On the Need for Prevention in the Pension System on the Example of the Demographic Reserve Fund
The subject of this paper is the Demographic Reserve Fund (DRF) which was established following the November 11th 1998 legal act of on the system of social security. The goal of the paper is the analysis and diagnosis of as well as the forecast for the Fund's demand for the financial means that have emerged after ageing demographic boom generation started entering the retirement age. The forecast is based on the assumptions referring to the demographic, social and economic situation of the country. These assumptions particularly refer to fertility, mortality, economic growth, earnings growth, migration, inflation, unemployment rate, structure of the population with respect to occupational groups and groups being beyond the labor force, indicators of valorization of premiums paid and services from social security, etc.
We used anonymized micro data from Labour Force Survey to estimate the ethnic wage gap in Latvia and find the factors that explain it. We found that a notable ethnic wage gap still exists in Latvia with non-Latvians earning 10 % less than Latvians in 2015. The results of Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition show that approximately two thirds of the ethnic wage gap are explained by differences in characteristics with the most important effects in favour of Latvians caused by segregation in better paying occupational groups, having Latvian citizenship and better education (higher education levels and more favourable segregation by education fields). This was partly offset by favourable segregation in sectors for non-Latvians. Quantile regressions show that ethnic wage gap is statistically significant in all deciles of wage distribution.
Hussein Ranjbar, Hossein Karimi Moonaghi, Abbas Heydari, Seyed Reza Mazlom, Laura Scurlock-Evans and Seyedeh Negar Assadi
Truck drivers are one of the largest occupational groups in Iran. Evidence from previous studies suggests that working and living conditions on the road engender many concerns for truck drivers, and their families and communities. This research aimed to explore the experiences of Iranian truck drivers regarding life on the road.
This qualitative study was conducted among Iranian truck drivers working in the inter-state transportation sector. A purposeful sample of 20 truck drivers took part in this research. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed based on qualitative content analysis.
After analysis of the data, three main themes emerged: “Individual impacts related to the hardships of life on the road life”, “Family impacts related to the hardships of road life”, and “Having positive attitude towards work and road”. These findings represent the dimensions of perspectives in the road-life of truck drivers.
Although truck drivers possess positive beliefs about their occupation and life on the road, they and their families face many hardships which should be well understood. They also need support to be better able to solve the road-life concerns they face. This study's findings are useful for occupational programming and in the promotion of health for truck drivers.
Objective. This study aimed to provide the true picture of a ten-year absenteeism survey with regard to work-related illnesses and injuries in medical-social workers, and to develop an analytical model for the occupational health practitioner to facilitate record linkage between health outcomes and occupational data.
Methods. Severity indicator and specific weight indicator were calculated on the basis of sick leaves evidence from seven care facilities, as well as the average lost days per year within the period 2008-2017. Four types of work-related illnesses, non-reported accidents and five occupational groups accounted for statistic modeling of data.
Results. According to the specific weight indicator for occupations, nurses ranked the first place for musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and traumatic injuries, followed by medical-social-educational staff. Severity indicator for musculoskeletal disorders was high correlated with the number of employees (r=0.66).
Conclusions: This analytical method is reliable to be applied in risk assessment procedures and occupational health expertise.
Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Jacek Sroka, Violetta Zając, Jacek Zwoliński, Anna Sawczyn-Domańska, Anna Kloc, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Robert Chmura and Jacek Dutkiewicz
Introduction: Exposure to zoonotic factors in veterinary practice is closely related to the nature of the work. The main aim of the study was to determine the risk of selected zoonotic infections among the occupational group of veterinarians in Poland.
Material and Methods: Blood samples of 373 veterinarians (162 males and 211 females) from 12 provinces of Poland were collected by the venipuncture of a forearm for serological tests. Commercial immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) were used for detection of specific IgG antibodies to Echinococcus granulosus, IgM and IgG to Leptospira spp., and IgM, IgA, and I and II phase IgG to Coxiella burnetii. Enzyme-linked fluorescence assays (ELFA) were used to detect IgM and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.
Results: Positive results were found in 209 (56.0%) veterinarians for at least one of the examined diseases. The overall proportion of participants found to have specific Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the IgM and/or IgG assays amounted to 44.5%. The presence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies was found in 16 (4.3%) subjects, while Leptospira spp. antibodies were detected in 63 (16.9%) veterinarians. Among the 373 veterinarians examined, no Echinococcus granulosus antibodies were found.
Conclusion: Results of the study seem to indicate a slightly elevated risk of Toxoplasma gondii infection and a moderate risk of infection with Leptospira spp. and Coxiella burnetii in veterinarians.
Emotional Intelligence and the Sense of Efficiency of Coaching and Instructing in Wrestling
Introduction. The aim of this study was to diagnose the level of emotional intelligence and sense of efficiency among the occupational group of coaches and instructors in wrestling. Material and methods. The study involved 27 participants of a training course for coaches and instructors in training (25 men and 2 women). The basic methods of research involved the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire INTE and the GSES scale for measurement of the sense of efficacy. Their use allowed us to diagnose the average level of emotional intelligence and the sense of self-efficacy. Results. Coaches and instructors are characterised by average level of emotional intelligence and the sense of self-efficacy. First class coaches are characterized by significantly higher levels of emotional intelligence, and the belonging to the group of trainers has no influence on the sense of efficacy. Conclusions. The results of the study can provide guidance to create/modify training programs for sports coaches. Developing mental toughness and improving emotional intelligence should occupy a special place in the training process wrestlers.