The purpose of this article is to assess budgetary spending targeted agriculture (first pillar) and rural areas (the second pillar) of the CAP in Poland in the long period. there was compared the structures of the EU budget spending and the national for the first and second pillar of the CAP in passing the 2007-2013 financial perspective and was assessed whether there is a convergence pattern of the aid. It shows the differences between the proportions of European and domestic spending for the objectives of the CAP implemented in Poland. Also was identified the existence of convergence between the level of spending for certain titles financed from the national budget and EU.
Stanisław Twardy, Halina Jankowska-Huflejt and Barbara Wróbel
R., Twardy S., 2004. Badania produkcyjności użytków zielonych w Karpatach Polskich. (Studies on grassland productivity in the Polish Carpathians). Woda Środowisko ObszaryWiejskie, 4, 1 (10): 247-258.
Kowalczyk A., 2007. Obliczenia wielkości erozji wodnej gleb na obszarach górskich. (Calculating water erosion of soils in mountain areas). Woda Środowisko ObszaryWiejskie, 7, 1 (19): 91-103.
Kuźniar A., Twardy S., 2001. Warunki przyrodniczo-gospodarcze Karpat Polskich z uwzględnieniem niedoborów wodnych. W
BERNINGER K., KOSKIAHO J., TATTARI S. 2012. Constructed wetlands in Finish agricultural environments: balancing between effective water protection, multifunctionallity and socio-economy. Journal of Water and Land Development. No 17 p. 19-29.
BIELECKA J., HARDEJ M., KOZŁOWSKA E., STEPANIUK W. 2006. Walory przyrodnicze i hydrologiczne małych zbiorników wodnych wybudowanych w Puszczy Białowieskiej [The ecological and hydrological value of small ponds constructed in Białowieża Forest]. Woda-Środowisko- ObszaryWiejskie
In order to meet social needs and create new social relations, the EU Commission classified under the concept of social innovations, development and implementation of new ideas (products, services, models). In rural areas, this kind of social needs is represented among others by the need of solving the issue of domestic wastewater treatment. The paper describes the imple-mentation of sewerage development program in Poland, as well as problems derived from large value variation of factors encoun-tered characterising the domestic sewage contamination. In view of the current state, the environmental risks due to improper use of domestic wastewater treatment technologies were specified.
This case study summarizes the current knowledge in Finland on the efficiency of constructed wetlands to improve water quality at the same time providing multiple benefits. The efficiency is highly dependent on the wetland’s relative size compared to the upstream catchment area, and on the amount of agricultural land in the upstream catchment. The case study analyses the incentives designed to motivate landowners to construct wetlands in Finland such as the non-productive investment support and the agri-environment payment support for wetland management. Farmers think that the support system is heavy and bureaucratic, and thus the target number of new constructed wetlands is far from being met. Individual projects have been more successful in wetland construction than the official support system. General wetland plans drafted for hotspot areas is an example of enabling factors and strict eligibility rules form one of the barriers of wetland construction identified in this case study. In spite of the criticism of the current wetland incentives, a support system for wetland construction is needed. One option would be to give regional authorities more freedom to select priority areas according to e.g. River Basin Management Plans.
Management of water resources in rural areas: the Polish approach
The Water Framework Directive (WFD), whose basic aim was to create a legal back-ground for water bodies' protection, undoubtedly affects all economic sectors. Being a specific and distinctly different water user, agriculture will have the greatest share in the implementation of WFD out of all sectors of national economy. This results from its special character (60% of the country area used by agriculture), large volume of water consumed by evapotranspiration, diffuse pollution etc. Implementation of WFD will call for undertaking of many activities to restrict an unfavourable im-pact of agriculture on water resources and water related ecosystems. It is assumed that agriculture should also protect water resources. Accomplishment of this task imposes significant changes in the land use of river basins. Water management can be an essential factor deciding about the sustainable development of rural areas and biological diversity of agricultural landscape. Actions undertaken so far to implement the WFD are mainly limited to the protection of water quality from agricultural pol-lution. It is also necessary to undertake implementation of other aims of WFD. This refers especially to the provision of good hydromorphological status of water bodies, protection of water related eco-systems and effective water use.
The phenomenon of the migration and the quality and the subsistence level of the population of rural areas in Malopolska
The present work is about the influence of migration on the quality and the subsistence level of the inhabitants from the six communities of Zakliczyn, Iwanowice, Czchów, Wieliczka, Zielonki, Drwinia located in the Malopolska voivodship. The quality of life of the examined households is not satisfying and the subsistence level of families, defined on basic cost patterns, is low. The principal costs are the so-called indispensable expenses. Such expenses include those which every household must bear; such as food and housing. There is pressure on the development of the social and technology infrastructure to lower unemployment so as to encourage inhabitants, especially the young of the community, to limit their outflow abroad.
Shopping centers in the Silesian Voivodeship have a significant impact on smaller settlement units located in outer areas of agglomerations. It consists mainly in changes related to social, economic, as well as functional and spatial spheres. Studies shows that shopping centers take over more and more functions of higher order (services, public culture, administration) and restrict the economic activity in rural areas outer areas of agglomerations. At the stage of the irrepressible process of suburbanisation of rural areas surrounding large urban agglomerations and structural changes in towns, it is difficult to conclusively assess the consequences of the operation of shopping centers in outer metropolitan areas. The impact of shopping centers on small towns and rural areas is a very dynamic process and requires systematic research.
BRODZIŃSKA K. 2009. Kierunki i perspektywy rozwoju programu rolnośrodowiskowego w Polsce po 2013 roku [Directions and perspectives of the development of agrienvironmental programme after the year 2013 in Poland]. Woda-Środowisko-ObszaryWiejskie. T. 9. Z. 3 (27) p. 5-18.
FAPA 2000. Metodyka liczenia nadwyżki bezpośredniej i zasady typologii gospodarstw rolniczych (według standardów Unii Europejskiej) [Methods of calculating gross margin and the principles of farm typology (according to the EU standards
Bartosiewicz A., 1977. Urządzanie terenów zieleni. (Arrangement of green areas). Warszawa, PWSiP.
Drupka S., 1976. Techniczna i rolnicza eksploatacja deszczowni. (Technical and agricultural exploitation of irrigation machines). Warszawa, PWRiL.
Przybyła Cz., Kozaczyk P., 2004. Problemy eksploatacji deszczowni w warunkach gospodarki rynkowej. (Problems with the exploitation of sprinkling machines in market economy). Woda Środowisko ObszaryWiejskie t. 4 z. 2a (11): 25