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Methodological Approach for Object-Relational Database Design using UML,” vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 59–72, Mar. 2003. [9] E. Pardede, W. Rahayu, and D. Taniar, “Mapping Methods and Query for Aggregation and Association in Object-Relational Database using Collection,” in Proc. International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing , 2004, pp. 539–543. [10] W. Y. Mok and D. P. Paper, “On Transformations From UML Models to Object-Relational Database,” in Proc. 34th Hawaii


This paper deals with uncertainty modeling in spatial object-relational databases by the use of Structured Query Language (SQL). The fundamental principles of uncertainty modeling by fuzzy sets are applied in the area of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial databases. A spatial database system includes types of spatial data and implements the spatial extension of SQL. The implementation of the principles of fuzzy logic to spatial databases brings an opportunity for the efficient processing of uncertain data, which is important, especially when using various data sources (e.g., multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) on the basis of heterogeneous spatial data resources). The modeling and data processing of uncertainties are presented in relation to the applicable International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards (standards of the series 19100 Geographic information) and the relevant specifications of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The fuzzy spatial query approach is applied and tested on a case study with a fundamental database for GIS in Slovakia.