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About the Oath in Thalia and Melpomene’s House

Abstract

This article brings up to date the ceremony of assuming the teacher’s oath, ceremony used to be done during the educational system along the middle of the 19th century, until the first half of the 20th century. We consider that it has been essential to transliterate two oaths (one of Mihai Eminescu, the other of Antonie Cirillo), each of them belonging to one of the two centuries, to demonstrate the perpetuation of this ceremony during almost seven decades, its coerciveness to fullfil being not only a simple solemn demonstration, but something that emerges from responsibility and consciousness of eternal values.

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Medieval Multilingualism in Poland: Creating a Corpus of Greater Poland Court Oaths (Rotha)

.1300 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Berry, David M. 2013. Understanding digital humanities . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Bogucka, Maria & Henryk Samsonowicz. 1986. Dzieje miast i mieszczaństwa w Polsce przedrozbiorowej. [History of towns and townspeople in pre-partition Poland.] Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. Borowiec, Karolina. 2013. Wokół Rot kościańskich . O specyficznej sytuacji edytorskiej. [Kościan court oaths. On their editorial status.] Kwartalnik Językoznawczy 4. 2–11. Brückner, Aleksander. 1927

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Powers of the President in the Romanian Semi-Presidential System. Critical Features

Abstract

In Romania, a semi-presidential system characterized by an exaltation of the powers of the President of the Republic, there would be critical observations to be reported in relation to this institution. More precisely, it refers to the constitutional provisions which weaken the President among the political institutions and could also lead to different interpretations. First of all, the paper examines the President as popularly elected body but that does not reflect fully the will of the nation. Secondly, its oath violated the freedom of religion and if the wording will not be changed, will continue to constitute a discrimination against other non Orthodox President that could be elected. Moreover, the Romanian legal system is characterized by an independence of the President in its relationship with the Parliament but on the one hand, that does not mean that the President is more powerful in the event of dissolution of the Parliament and the other hand, the Parliament is completely independent in determining its competences in relations with the office of the Presidency.

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Tendencies of Future Doctors’ Ethical Competence Formation at Medical Universities in Europe and the USA

Abstract

The materials presented in this article are the result of a documentary-bibliographic study, which is based on the use of methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization. The results of the study have shown that the problem of professional ethics and culture of health care professionals is of significant interest. Problems of ethics, culture and deontology are the subject of consideration by scholars from the countries of Europe and the United States. There have been defined the main modern tendencies of training doctors for their professional activity in the leading countries of the world in the context of the professional and ethical competence formation. It has been found out that the development of higher medical education is carried out on the basis of the Bologna process principles, which involves introduction of two degrees (Bachelor and Master of Science), implementation of the ECTS system, introduction of the single diploma supplement, etc. It has been estimated that the educational programs for future doctors' training are aimed at the development of the students’ analytical and critical thinking; behavioral and social sciences, medical ethics, bioethics, provide knowledge, skills and abilities in the field of communication, clinical decision making, application of ethical norms, work in the multi-staff teams etc. The integrated programs play an important role in the educational process. Over the last decades studying bioethics is a compulsory component of the medical education. However, not only bioethics is the basis for the formation of future doctors’ professional and ethical competence at medical Universities abroad. The Oath of Hippocrates is of great significance for the students who devote themselves to medicine. In various countries it has been transformed into codes, oaths, etc., and now it is carried out by the students (future physicians) during their studies at higher medical educational institutions.

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Evidentiary means in feudal Transylvania. Ordeal By fire (holding a red-hot iron)

Abstract

One of the evidentiary means used in medieval legal procedure was the so-called judgment of God, judicium dei, also known as ordeal, from the Latin term ordalium. Ordeals were characteristic of all peoples in their various stages of development. They were based on the belief that divinity could intervene and perform miracles, disregarding the laws of nature, in order to prove one’s innocence. In the Middle Ages ordeals were widespread on the territory of Transylvania, too, the ordeal of fire being one of the most commonly used means of proof. In this paper I will try to show the characteristics of this evidence in relation to others that were used at that time, looking at them through the lenses of the documents of the time and of personal research.

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Limits Of Liberal Individual Integration:
Comparing Australian, British and Canadian Citizenship Guides

Abstract

This article examines conceptual and policy limits underlying citizenship guides to prepare immigrants to take citizenship tests as part of their integration process in liberal democratic countries. The first section defines liberal individual integration and constructs three ideal types of liberal national, international and transnational individual integration. The second section applies these types to six Australian, British and Canadian citizenship guides, showing the predominance of liberal national individual integration. The argument is that this result, combined with citizenship oaths and ceremonies, supports the claim that citizenship tests are illiberal.

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Gurraacha: An Indigenous Inter-Ethnic Peace Building and Conflict Resolution Institution among the People of South Central Ethiopia

Abstract

This article deals with Gurraacha institution, which is very important in inter-ethnic peace building and resolving conflict among people of south-central Ethiopia. This institution was named after the Oromo term ‘Gurraacha’ (literally meaning black) to indicate its power in inter-ethnic peace building and conflict resolution. It is one element of Oromo Gadaa system which was established time immemorial to sustain peace between Oromo and non-Oromo neighboring ethnic groups. The data for this study was collected through interview, observation and focus group discussions in 2014 and 2015. As revealed by this study, Gurraacha institution is a guarantee for sustaining peace among people of south-central Ethiopia by managing conflict over boundary, grazing land, looting of cattle and water points. Overall, the study concluded that Gurraacha institution has real significance in inter-ethnic peace-building, sustaining social harmony and inter-ethnic conflict resolution. In Gurraacha institution, people rebuild lost peace and order of Waaqa (God) by performing purification rituals. There is no corruption in Gurraacha institution since all activities are undertaken according to Waaqa’s law and order. There is no false oath in this institution because such act is believed to have negative consequences. The oath of Gurraacha institution which are made during reconciliation process transcend generations. This institution is the model of conflict transformation which is hardly found in today’s world. Therefore, using this indigenous institution for future policy formulation in the country as inter-ethnic peace building and conflict resolution model is important for the realization of sustainable peace and development.

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An event that impacted the Transylvanian pharmacist education 100 years ago

Abstract

In Kolozsvár, on 17th of September 1872, a Hungarian royal university was founded with 4 faculties 1- Law and Political Sciences, 2. Medical, 3. Arts (liberal), Language and History of Science, 4. Mathemathics and Natural History faculties. In 1881 the University picked up the Ferencz József University of Science name. There was no independent Medicine trainingfacultyt at this time yet. Pharmacists were taught in the Medical and Natural History faculties. In December 1918, during the first world war, Kolozsvár was moved under Romanian rule. On the 9th of May in 1919 the Romanian authorities called the acadamic senate (school staff) to do loyalty oath for the Romanian king.This was refused by the university teachers. After this event, teachers were moved out from this building along with the entire equipement of the University, and the place was occupied by the Romanian university. As, by this, theHungarian language acadamic education became impossible the first stage of the life of(Hungarian King) Ferencz József University of Sciense ended. First, the major part of theprofessors and students emigrated to Budapest while later on in 1921 the University wastemporarily established in Szeged. The University in Szeged took not onlythe legal continuity of the institute through its name but its professors also maintained and cherished all the traditions of the institute through many long coming years. Starting from 1921/1922 many student with transilvanian origin obtained pharmacist’s degree here many of whom later returned and worked in their native country.

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The symbols and traditions of nursing in the opinion of nursing students

Abstract

Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the students’ knowledge about the symbols and traditions in nursing. The merits of continuing the tradition and symbolism in contemporary nursing in the opinion of students were also evaluated.

Material and methods. The study involved 64 undergraduate nursing students of the Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Kraków University. As a technique there was used author’s questionnaire to assess the validity of the symbolism there was used a Likert scale from 0-5. The median values and standard deviation were given.

Results. Almost every student mentioned a nursing cap and uniform as a symbol of professional nursing (95% vs. 83%). For students the most important is oath taking (x = 4.4, SD = 1.0) and symbolic caps awarding ceremony (x = 4.4, SD = 1.25). The least need is related to a return to the strap awarding tradition (x = 3.19, SD = 1.77). Approximately 45% of students would like to wear a nursing cap. In the opinion of 75% of students professional traditions should be cultivated during studies.

Conclusions. Traditions should be cultivated during studies in the current system of education. There is a need to remember about the history of the profession.

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From Magna Carta To The Contemporary System Of Financial Penalties In The Criminal Law

Abstract

Magna Carta Libertatum or the Great Charter of the Liberties is a historical document of great significance for the constitutional history and human rights and liberties development. Although at its initial version it addressed a limited number of liberties and principles, it represented a solid foundation for the evolution of the principles of the rule of law, right to justice, right to a fair trial, just and reasonable sentencing, limitation of powers, etc.

Namely, article 20 of the Charter states: A freeman shall not be amerced for a slight offense, except in accordance with the degree of the offense; and for a grave offense he shall be amerced in accordance with the gravity of the offense, yet saving always his “contenement”; and a merchant in the same way, saving his “merchandise”; and a villein shall be amerced in the same way, saving his “wainage” if they have fallen into our mercy: and none of the aforesaid amercements shall be imposed except by the oath of honest men of the neighborhood.

An analysis of this article undoubtedly leads us to the basic principles of the contemporary systems of fine, namely the daily-fine system introduced in the Macedonian Criminal Code in 2004 according to which the fine will be calculated and pronounced according to the gravity of the offence and the financial state and condition of the perpetrator. As one can notice, the gravity of the offence and the saving of the perpetrators “contenement” from the abovementioned article of the Great Charter refer to the aforesaid principles.

In this article, a comparison will be made on the meaning of the term “amercement” and its similarities and differences with the modern financial penalties and measures in the criminal law from comparative perspective, to find which one corresponds to the latter: fine, assets forfeiture or compensation of damages made with the criminal offence.

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