A., WYSZKOWSKI M. 1998. Charakterystyka zawartości ołowiu w glebach przy drodze Olsztyn- Olsztynek. Ołów w środowisku- problemy ekologiczne i metodyczne. Zeszyty Naukowe Komitetu Człowiek i Środowisko PAN 21: 265-270. CZUBASZEK R., BARTOSZUK K. 2011. Zawartość wybranych metali ciężkich w glebach w zależności od ich odległości od ulicy i sposobu użytkowania terenu. Civil and Environmental Engineering 2: 27-34. DE MIGUEL E., LLAMAS J.F., CHACON E., BERG T., LARSSEN S., RØYSET O., VADSET M. 1997. Origin and patterns of distribution of trace elements in street dust
Among the heavy metals, lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental pollutants. This study examines the effect of 1 mM lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2 on the germination index, morphological parameters (root length, shoot length, fresh biomass and tolerance index) and physiological parameters (proline, total chlorophyll and carotenoids) in the leaves of 10-day-old seedlings of various species of crop plants under laboratory conditions. All results, when compared to control, showed Pb adversely affecting the morphological and physiological parameters of the test plants. Among the 12 studied plants, three species (pumpkin, rye and wheat) presented high tolerance to Pb compared to the other test plants. The most sensitive to Pb exposure were radish, barley, tomato and alfalfa
soils. Polish t. Soil Science 30/2: 29-33. GĄSIOREK M., NIEMYSKA-ŁUKASZUK J. 2004. Kadm i ołów w glebach antropogenicznych ogrodów klasztornych Krakowa. Rocz. Glebozn. 60, 1: 127-134. GODZIK B. 1999. Stężenia metali ciężkich w glebach i wybranych warzywach w krakowskich ogrodach działkowych - wyniki 1S-letnich badań. Chemia i Inż. Ekolog. 6, S-6: 409-417. GODZIK B., GRODZIŃSKA K., SZAREK G. 199S. Vegetables and soil contamination with heavy metals in allotment gardens in Kraków agglomeration - ten year studies. Arch. Ochr. Środ. 2: 16S-173. GONTARZ B
Analysis of the top-soil total content of heavy metals was carried out inthe vicinity of large copper ore tailings pound in the south-western Poland with regard to soil properties, direction and distance from the tailings pound. None of the soils under study ex-ceeded the limits admitted in the official standards for soil quality, but the assessment made in accordance with IUNG-guidelines to soil contamination determination showed that more than half of the monitoring sites have elevated metal content, Cu, in par-ticular. The results confirmed high effectiveness of dust control preventing its eolian spread from the tailings pound.
The risk of Cd and Pb transfer from the soil into the seeds of different cultivars of buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa cultivated in field trial was investigated. Five cultivars from each pseudocereal, that is, buckwheat (Špačinská, Siva, Bamby, Aiva, Madawska), amaranth (Golden Giant, Rawa, Annapurna, Oscar Blanco, Koniz) and quinoa (Temuco, Quinua, Yulai, Carmen, Ccankolla) were analysed. Content of risky metals in soil and pseudocereal seeds was assessed by AAS. Pseudototal contents of metals determined in the soil extract by aqua regia were lower than the limit values given by Law No. 220/2004 with exception of Cd (the soil content was 40% higher than the hygienic limit). Contents of bioavailable forms determined in the soil extract by NH4NO3 (c = 1 mol • dm-3) of all observed metals with exception of Pb were lower than hygienic limits. The determined content of bioavailable Pb forms was 2.3-fold higher than the hygienic limit. The limit value for Cd content was not exceeded in any buckwheat cultivar. The determined Pb content was in cv. Bamby at the level of hygienic limit, and in cv. Madawska twofold higher than the limit given by Foodstuff Codex of the Slovak Republic (FC SR). On the other hand, in seeds of nearly all the investigated amaranth and quinoa cultivars, higher Cd and Pb contents than the maximal allowed amounts in cereals according to FC SR were determined. The presented results indicate the serious risk of Cd and Pb accumulation by seeds of minor plants which are utilised in the production of functional foods.
The pollution of soil by heavy metals is considered to be a big problem in the world today. Currently, attention is being paid to the content of individual heavy metals in the soil-plant-food system. In our work, mainly the effect of bivalent cations of lead, cadmium and zinc and its uptake by faba bean (Faba vulgaris M.) was surveyed.
The results obtained suggest that the incorporation of Pb (200 mg • kg-1 soil) and Cd (10 mg • kg-1) had a negative effect on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of faba bean. The incorporation of Pb in the faba bean crop is statistically significantly decreased by 24.86%, and the reduction of Cd represented 29.91% compared to the control. In the case of common application of zinc, cadmium and lead in soil (variants C, E), there was a slight increase in crop yield compared to the individual incorporation of heavy metals (variants B, D); in the case of Pb, the increase was 13.14%, and in case of Cd 27.77%. A common application of heavy metals with zinc had a positive influence on quality parameters of the faba bean. We have seen a decrease in Cd to 0.15 ± 0,018 mg • kg-1 (a statistically significant decrease) and decrease in Pb to 0.61 ± 0.17 mg • kg-1 (without significant differences).
Praca prezentuje rezultaty biomonitoringu ołowiu w zróżnicowanych warunkach środowiskowych. Do oceny zawartości poziomu ołowiu wykorzystano rośliny życicy wielokwiatowej. Dodatkowo w liściach oznaczono zawartość chlorofilu (a+b, a oraz b) w świeżej masie. Rośliny eksponowano w okresie wegetacyjnym roku 2011 na pięciu stanowiskach badawczych różniących się parametrami środowiskowymi oraz w warunkach kontrolnych. Rośliny eksponowano w 28-dniowych okresach badawczych. Wyniki zawartości Pb oraz poziomów chlorofili w różnych miejscach ekspozycyjnych oraz seriach testowano z zastosowaniem wielowymiarowej analizy wariancji. Wykazano zmienność zawartości Pb oraz poziomów wszystkich form chlorofilu w różnych miejscach ekspozycyjnych i seriach. Najniższe zawartości ołowiu oraz najwyższe poziomy wszystkich form chlorofilu zaobserwowano na stanowisku podmiejskim. W pracy wykazano przydatność analizy zmiennych kanonicznych do graficznej prezentacji wyników biomonitoringu powietrza.
Earth surface is under the continous influence of the environmental factors - both natural and anthropogenic. The significant impact on the environment can be noted in areas adjacent to the metal industry plants, in a consequence of pollutants emission, especially dusts containing the heavy metals, into the atmosphere,. In the surroundings of Głogów Copper Smelter (GCS) elevated amounts of copper and lead has been noted. In the soils of the test sites were found up to 5250 mg・kg-1 Cu and 1290 mg・kg-1 Pb. The forest litter contained 3.3-5.1 more Cu and 3.9-8.6 Pb than the humic horizon of the soil. Analyse of the different soils covering the GCS protective forest area let specify the stabilising role of particle size distribution, TOC content and the soil reaction to Cu and Pb migration in the environment.
The content of trace elements in soils varies widely and their mobility and availability depends not only on the total content but also on the form of in which these elements occur. The aim of this study was to determine the total content of nickel, lead, zinc and copper in soils used for agriculture, and assess the mobility and phytoavailability of these metals against a background of physical and chemical properties of these soils. In samples taken from three soil profiles (Phaeozem and 2 Fluvisols) the contents of Ni, Pb, Zn and Cu were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy in the solutions obtained according to the protocol of modified BCR sequential extraction procedure supplemented with aqua regia digestion. The total content of the analyzed metals in most cases corresponded to the natural values, often not exceeding the geochemical background level. It was only in the one profile of the Fluvisols (Endogleyic Fluvisol) that a higher concentration of zinc and lead was noticed (especially in the surface horizon), slightly exceeding the legal limit. Among the studied metals the lowest phytoavailability was characterized by copper (exchangeable forms on average 4.73% of the total), and the highest by zinc (11.49%). Nickel was the most permanently bound with soil solid phase, and its content in the residual fraction reached 84.46% of the total. Approximately a half of the total lead content was determined as a fraction bound with iron and manganese oxides, while in the case of this metal a significant role in binding of this metal was playing organic matter (fraction bound with organic matter and sulphides - an average of 27.5%). Significant role in the binding of all investigated metals was credited to iron and manganese compounds.