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Janusz P. Kogut, Elżbieta Pilecka and Dariusz Szwarkowski
Due to the significant role and noticeable development of transportation routes running from the north to the south of central Europe, several problems related to the construction and functioning of roads in the Carpathian foothills have been revealed. Recent climate change causes areas, where transport routes are particularly exposed to hazards, to succumb to technical exploitation and degradation. The elimination of the threats related to the activation of landslide phenomena becomes particularly expensive. Old roads, which were once designed for significantly lower axle loads and less heavy traffic conditions, are predominantly exposed. At the present, these roads are heavily exploited and have become overloaded. As a result, both the roadway and the subgrade undergo damage, which causes an increase in dynamic loads, and in potentially endangered areas, the activation of landslides. Landslides in the Carpathian flysch have a peculiar susceptibility to activation due to its geological structure. This paper addresses the problem of monitoring and analysing the effects of a landslide associated with the operation of a transportation route running through the slope of the Carpathian flysch. The studies include both field work and laboratory testing of basic geotechnical parameters. The parameters obtained during the geotechnical investigations, conducted for the purpose of building a numerical model, have been completed. The field work includes surveys made by a terrestrial laser scanner. The study also includes a number of 2D and 3D numerical models. These models, along with the substrate parameters, have been introduced into the FEA package and then calibrated. Subsequently, an analysis of the effects of landslide susceptibility and the behaviour of the road and terrain surface, due to the different variants of the loads, is shown along with the results of surveys.
The aim of this work was to create a numerical model of scintillation detector and to check whether such detector can be used for the measurements of internal contamination in emergency conditions. The purpose of the measurements would be only detection of possible contamination, without identification of radioactive isotopes, and hence without estimation of effective dose. However, in emergency conditions, it is sufficient for the rapid selection of a group of contaminated persons, who should be subjected to careful inspection in the laboratory conditions. The calculations were performed for three detector positions relatively to the phantom. The distribution of dose rate was also calculated, in order to find the best geometry for dose rate measurements around human body. Another problem under consideration was the possible influence of radioactive contamination in the environment on the registration of the gamma spectrum emitted from the whole body phantom. Performed calculations showed that there is a possibility to measure internal contamination outside laboratory, even in contaminated area.
and differential settlements in comparison with the pile raft model with a uniform pile arrangement (piles spread over the entire area of raft). The behavior of large piled-raft foundation on clay soil is studied by numericalmodeling ( Mali & Singh 2018 & 2019 ). The results indicated that with the 5 to 6 times increase in the pile diameter of pile spacing , both the average settlement ratio and the differential settlement ratio decreased effectively, and thereafter, it increased gradually. Raft with smaller raft-to-soil stiffness ratio and larger pile group