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Introduction. Electroporation-based treatments rely on increasing the permeability of the cell membrane by high voltage electric pulses delivered to tissue via electrodes. To ensure that the whole tumor is covered by the sufficiently high electric field, accurate numerical models are built based on individual patient geometry. For the purpose of reconstruction of hepatic vessels from MRI images we searched for an optimal segmentation method that would meet the following initial criteria: identify major hepatic vessels, be robust and work with minimal user input.
Materials and methods. We tested the approaches based on vessel enhancement filtering, thresholding, and their combination in local thresholding. The methods were evaluated on a phantom and clinical data. Results.
Results show that thresholding based on variance minimization provides less error than the one based on entropy maximization. Best results were achieved by performing local thresholding of the original de-biased image in the regions of interest which were determined through previous vessel-enhancement filtering. In evaluation on clinical cases the proposed method scored in average sensitivity of 93.68%, average symmetric surface distance of 0.89 mm and Hausdorff distance of 4.04 mm.
Conclusions. The proposed method to segment hepatic vessels from MRI images based on local thresholding meets all the initial criteria set at the beginning of the study and necessary to be used in treatment planning of electroporation- based treatments: it identifies the major vessels, provides results with consistent accuracy and works completely automatically. Whether the achieved accuracy is acceptable or not for treatment planning models remains to be verified through numerical modeling of effects of the segmentation error on the distribution of the electric field.
such as electrochemotherapy (ECT), is a non-thermal method for destruction of tumor tissue. 2 , 3 IRE uses ultrashort but strong electric fields to create nanopores in the cell membrane, thereby disturbing the cellular homeostasis and subsequently causing cell death by apoptosis. 4 IRE is not affected by the “heat-sink-effect” 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 and can be applied in close proximity to temperature-sensitive structures such as bile ducts. Therefore, IRE is a useful technique in particular for central liver tumors in the vicinity of larger vessels and bile ducts
. Irreversible electroporation ablation of malignant hepatic tumors: subacute and follow-up CT appearance of ablation zones. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2014; 25: 1589-94. 33 Meir A, Hjouj M, Rubinsky L, Rubinsky B. Magnetic resonance imaging of electrolysis. Sci Rep 2015; 5: 8095. 34 Pucihar G, Krmelj J, Reberšek M, Napotnik TB, Miklavčič D. Equivalent pulse parameters for electroporation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2011; 58: 3279-88. 35 Garcia PA, Pancotto T, Rossmeisl JH, Henao-Guerrero N, Gustafson NR, Daniel GB, et al. Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE) and
This paper investigates the effect of non-linear thermal profile on the numerical solution of the multi-reaction model. According to the practical perspective, the temperature distribution at a different section of pyrolysis reactor is not necessarily following the ideal thermal history; therefore, it is necessary to predict the behaviour of the system for the higher degree of freedom. TG thermogram is obtained by the thermal degradation of pine needles sample in the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The activation energy, frequency factor, reaction order and the scale, shape and location parameters of a stochastic function are estimated for the non-linear parabolic thermal profile. The conventional Laplace integral is used to approximate the multi-reaction model. Activation energy obtained for the non-thermal profile lies in the range of 57.5–60 kJ·mol−1, whereas the frequency factor varies from 103–105 min-1. The obtained value of reaction order (n) lies in the domain of (0.9, 1.6).
Diabetic disease and its chronic complications is a public health problem that affects millions of people all over the world. Feet diabetics need private care by using appropriate shoes and socks, to avoid friction, sweating and high temperature. Diabetic socks have to attain an effective thermal comfort and higher appraisal performance. To achieve these conditions, the diabetic socks have to attain comfortable fit, no pressure points or seams on fingers, suitable size, classified as spring-summer or autumn-winter and also to avoid high temperature. The specifications of the diabetic socks sold in the market consist of its material combination, size and chemical treatments. No definite physical mechanical properties of diabetic socks are proposed. Diabetic socks taken from the market, with appropriate price, were evaluated for both thermal and non-thermal properties. The tested samples demonstrate a great variability’s in the fabric construction and properties. By analyzing the tested socks, the proposed values concerning the properties of diabetic socks for summer and winter are introduced. Moreover, relative geometrical mean of thermal comfort properties was proposed for determining a global measure of diabetic sock properties.