Mirjana Bećarević, Jelena Seferović, Svetlana Ignjatović, Sandra Singh and Nada Majkić-Singh
insulin resistance and beta-cell function. Eur J Clin Invest 2002; 32: 14-23.
Carlsson M, Wessman Y, Almgren P, Groop L. High levels of non-esterifiedfattyacids are associated with increased familial risk of cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 160: 1588-94.
Gillery P. Nonenzymatic post-translational modification derived products: New biomarkers of protein aging. Journal of Medical Biochemistry 2011; 30: 201-6.
Aslan D. Biomarkers for diabetes complications: The
Juraiporn Somboonwong, Khunkhong Huchaiyaphum, Onanong Kulaputana and Phisit Prapunwattana
Monounsaturated fat (MUFA) also has glucose-lowering action, but its effect on ketone bodies is unknown.
To examine the effects of high-MUFA diet alone or in combination with exercise training, which can improve glucose and ketone body metabolism, in a rat model of diabetes.
Wistar rats were administered streptozotocin to induce diabetes and then randomly divided into five groups: sedentary rats fed a regular diet (1), a high-saturated-fat diet (2), a high-MUFA diet (3); and exercisetrained rats fed a regular diet (4), and a high-MUFA diet (5). Training was by a treadmill twice daily, 5 days/week. At 12 weeks, glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate levels were measured in cardiac blood. Activity of the overall ketone synthesis pathway was determined in liver and 3-ketoacyl-CoA transferase activity determined in gastrocnemius muscle.
A high-MUFA diet tended to lower plasma glucose without affecting other biochemical variables. Training did not change glucose metabolism, but significantly reduced serum NEFA. Only the high-MUFA diet plus training significantly decreased HbA1c levels. Hepatic ketone synthesis was decreased and 3-ketoacyl-CoA transferase activity was increased by training alone or in combination with a high-MUFA diet. Changes in NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and the enzymatic activities in response to training plus a high-MUFA diet were comparable to those caused by training alone.
A high-MUFA diet alone does not alter ketone body metabolism. Combination of a MUFA-rich diet and exercise training is more effective than either MUFA or exercise alone for lowering HbA1c.
Enrico Fiore, Sonia Giambelluca, Massimo Morgante, Giuseppe Piccione, Irene Vazzana, Barbara Contiero, Tiziana Orefice, Francesca Arfuso and Matteo Gianesella
, Kulcsar M, Rudas P: Clinical endocrinology of thyroid gland function in ruminants. Vet Med CZECH 2002; 47: 199-210.
7. Fiore E, Gianesella M, Arfuso F, Giudice E, Piccione G, Lora M, Stefani A, Morgante M: Glucose infusion response on some metabolic parameters in dairy cows during transition period. Archiv Tierz 2014; 57: 1-9.
8. Ospina P.A., Nydam D.V., Stokol T., Overton T.R.: Evaluation of non-esterifiedfattyacids and beta-hydroxybutyrate in transition dairy cattle in the northeastern United States: Critical thresholds for prediction
I. Paulíková, H. Seidel, O. Nagy, Cs. Tóthová, J. Konvičná, M. Kadaši and G. Kováč
List of abbreviations
ANOVA analysis of variance
a. p. ante-partum ( pre-partum )
AST aspartate aminotransferase
BFT backfat thickness
IGF-I insulin like growth factor
p. p. post-partum
T 3 triiodothyronine
T 4 thyroxin
TBil total bilirubin
TL total lipids
TMR total mix ration
TP total protein
NEB negative energy balance
SD standard deviation
VLDL very low-density lipoproteins
x mean value
Jim Weber, Markus Zenker, Gábor Köller, Manfred Fürll and Markus Freick
lesions of locomotor system, 4 – coliform mastitis, 5 – miscellaneous (ruminal tympany, cachexia, spinal abscess, tarsitis), 6 – healthy control animals). A – phosphorus, B – potassium, C – iron, D – β-hydroxybutyrate, E – total bilirubin, F – non-esterifiedfattyacids, and G – creatine kinase. Parameters returning means differing significantly between the RCD and CDC groups were chosen for these plots ( Table 4 ). Descriptive differences between the diagnosis groups could not be proven to be statistically significant (P > 0.003). Group 6 (healthy control cows) was not
energy from fat, and variable amounts of protein ( Hession et al.,2009 ; Hu et al., 2012 ; Zajac et al., 2014 ). Several studies used extreme LCHF diets that contained less than 5% of carbohydrate ( Langfort et al., 2004 ; Martin et al., 2011 ; Paoli et al., 2012 ). LCHF diets usually lead to ketosis when the liver oxidizes high concentrations of non-esterifiedfattyacids (NEFA) into ketone bodies, including 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone ( Owen et al., 1967 ; Paoli et al., 2015 ). The physiological ketosis from LCHF diets results in blood ketone
V. Sloup, I. Jankovská, I. Langrová, M. Štolcová, S. Sloup, S. Nechybová and P. Peřinková
The experiment was conducted on 18 Wistar rats during a six-week period; 12 animals were given zinc lactate (120 mg/rat and week) in feed mixture and 6 control animals were fed a standard mixture for rats (ST-1). Sixteen biochemical parameters were measured from blood (serum) samples: total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), urea (UREA), glucose (GLU), triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol (CHOL), creatinine (CREAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid (UA), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and trace elements such as Fe and Zn. When compared to the control group, we found that rats fed zinc lactate had higher concentrations of GLU, UA, UREA, Fe, Mg, Ca, TAG, TP, ALB, and ALP in the blood serum. Contrarily, the concentrations of AST, NEFA, CHOL, CREAT, P, and Zn were higher in the blood serum of control rats. Statistically significant differences between rats fed Zn and the control were found only in the concentrations of GLU, AST, ALP, UA, and P.
Francesca Arfuso, Francesco Fazio, Michele Panzera, Claudia Giannetto, Simona Di Pietro, Elisabetta Giudice and Giuseppe Piccione
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic changes of serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles in 6 newborn calves during the first five days of life. From each calve blood sampling was performed daily starting from day 1 (after colostrum intake) until day 5 of life. Blood samples collected from each animal were tested for serum total lipids, phospholipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), triglycerides, very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs), total cholesterol (Total-Chol), high density lipoproteins (HDLs) and low density lipoproteins (LDLs). One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine the effect of days of life on the studied parameters in calves. A statistically significant effect of days of life was found on all serum lipid and lipoprotein indices measured in calves with the exception of NEFAs that showed unchanged values throughout the monitoring period. The changes observed in calves during the early postnatal period are most likely due to the transition in energy sources, from a maternal nutrient supply comprising mainly carbohydrates and amino acids to the colostrum and milk diet rich in fat.
Yu Cao, Jiang Zhang, Wei Yang, Cheng Xia, Hong-You Zhang, Yan-Hui Wang and Chuang Xu
Introduction: A model of fatty liver in postpartum sheep was established to measure blood paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and other biochemical indicators, which were used to predict fatty liver in sheep.
Material and Methods: Sheep were assigned into two experimental groups: a fatty liver group (T, n = 10) and a healthy control group (C, n = 5). PON1 enzyme activity towards paraoxon as a substrate was quantified spectrophotometrically. The results were analysed by t-test and pearson correlation coefficient. Disease was predicted by binary logistic analysis, and diagnostic thresholds were determined by receiver operatingcharacteristic (ROC) analysis.
Results: The activity of serum PON1 in group T was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) when compared with C group, and liver lipid content and the levels of serum BHBA, NEFA, and TG were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Thresholds were lower than 74.0 U/mL for PON1, higher than 0.97 mmol/L for β-hydroxybutyrate, higher than 1.29 mmol/L for non-esterified fatty acids, higher than 0.24 mmol/L for triglycerides, and lower than 71.35 g/L for total protein.
Conclusion: This study verified that PON1, BHBA, NEFA, TG, and TP could be used to predict the risk of fatty liver in sheep.
Yu Cao, Jiang Zhang, Wei Yang, Cheng Xia, Hong-You Zhang, Yan-Hui Wang and Chuang Xu
Introduction: The predictive value of selected parameters in the risk of ketosis and fatty liver in dairy cows was determined.
Material and Methods: In total, 21 control and 17 ketotic Holstein Friesian cows with a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.20 mmol/L as a cut-off point were selected. The risk prediction thresholds for ketosis were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
Results: In the ketosis group, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity and concentration of PON-1 and glucose (GLU) were decreased, and aminotransferase (AST) activity as well as BHBA and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) contents were increased. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly positively correlated with the level of plasma GLU. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly negatively correlated with the levels of AST and BHBA. According to ROC curve analysis, warning indexes of ketosis were: plasma PON-1 concentration of 46.79 nmol/L, GLU concentration of 3.04 mmol/L, AST concentration of 100 U/L, and NEFA concentration of 0.82 mmol/L.
Conclusion: This study showed that the levels of PON-1, GLU, AST, and NEFA could be used as indicators to predict the risk of ketosis in dairy cows.