This article presents preliminary model results of climate change impact on biogeochemical processes in soil. With the use of DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model, a simulation with climate data over seventy years period (1947-2016) from central part of Slovenia has been carried out. Amongst assessed sources of variability, time variability has been estimated to around 10% of the total annual nitrogen leaching. In some cases, a statistically significant downward trend was observed with a 5 kg reduction in nitrogen per hectare in seventy years period. This study represents the first quantitative assessment of nitrogen leaching variability due to precipitation and air temperature variability in three representative soil profiles in the central Slovenia. It offers a starting point for future regional research for the purpose of farming practice optimization, especially in catchment areas of major regional water resources in Slovenia.
Jakub Elbl, Magdalena Vaverková, Dana Adamcová, Lukáš Plošek, Antonín Kintl, Tomáš LošÁk, Jaroslav Hynšt and Jana Kotovicová
This work presents the analysis of the influence of compost and reclamation substrate addition and mineral fertilizers application on leaching of mineral nitrogen, microbial activities, soil hydrophobicity and plant biomass production. To demonstrate the effect of compost, reclamation substrate and mineral nitrogen (Nmin) addition on above parameters, the pot experiment was performed. As a model crop, Deschampsia caespitosa L. was used and cultivated for 63 days in climate chamber. The leaching of Nmjn was measured by application of ion exchange discs, soil hydrophobicity was determined based on the values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and microbial activity was expressed as basal (BR) and substrate induced respiration (SIR). Four variants (V1-V4) with different doses of fertilizers were prepared: V1 - control without addition of fertilizers; V2 - this variant of experiment was prepared as mixture of compost and arable land in ratio 7:3; V3 - 90 g/m2 of mineral fertilizers NPK (in the ratio 1:1:1) were applied there and into V4, dose 30 g of compost were applied. The significant differences (P < 0.05) in the detection of Nmin, values of Ksat and SIR were found. The highest decrease of mineral nitrogen leaching was observed by the simultaneous applications of compost (V4) to arable soil, about 50% in comparison with the variant V4 (application of mineral fertilization) and about 10% in comparison with the control. Variants with addition of compost (V2 and V4) showed higher values than variants without, which were measured at three stages (before application of Nmin - 12 days after establishment of the experiment; after application of Nmin - 34 days; at end of the experiment - 63 days). During the experiment, two types of respiration were measured: BR and SIR. The significant differences in SIR were found between variants with addition of compost and variants without. The SIR (cumulative production of CO2) was higher about 25% in variants V2 and V4 compared to variants V1 and V3. The highest values of Ksat were found in variants with addition of compost. Conversely, the lowest value of Ksat was detected in variant with addition of Nmin. Low values of Ksat indicate an increased level of hydrophobicity.
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Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the main greenhouse gases, with a nearly 300 times greater potential to produce a greenhouse effect than carbon dioxide (CO2). Almost 80% of the annual emissions of this gas in Poland come from agriculture, and its main source is the use of agricultural soils. The study attempted to estimate the N2O emission from agricultural soils and to indicate its share in the total greenhouse gas emissions in 48 Polish communes. For this purpose, a simplified solution has been proposed which can be successfully applied by local government areas in order to assess nitrous oxide emissions, as well as to monitor the impact of actions undertaken to limit them. The estimated emission was compared with the results of the baseline greenhouse gas inventory prepared for the needs of the low-carbon economy plans adopted by the studied self-governments. This allowed us to determine the share of N2O emissions from agricultural soils in the total greenhouse gas emissions of the studied communes. The annual N2O emissions from agricultural soils in the studied communes range from 1.21 Mg N2O-N to 93.28 Mg N2O-N, and the cultivation of organic soils is its main source. The use of mineral and natural fertilisers, as well as indirect emissions from nitrogen leaching into groundwater and surface waters, are also significant. The results confirm the need to include greenhouse gas emissions from the use of agricultural soils and other agricultural sources in low-carbon economy plans.
Chi Xu, Wen-Zhi Zeng, Jing-Wei Wu and Jie-Sheng Huang
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