Renata Dondajewska, Ryszard Gołdyn, Beata Messyasz, Katarzyna Kowalczewska-Madura and Sławek Cerbin
Qualitative analyses of nitrogen and phosphorus loads reaching the lake ecosystem provide a basis for pollution control, which is of paramount importance in shallow lakes due to the rapid turn-over of matter and energy. The studies of both external and internal loading were conducted in Lake Łeknenskie, a very shallow, through-flow lake situated in Western Poland. Strong eutrophication is manifested in rich rush vegetation and a lack of submerged macrophytes as well as nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations (max 13.04 mg N dm−3 and 0.32 mg P dm−3, respectively). Constant domination of cyanobacteria in the phytoplankton community was noted in almost all seasons with a 98% share in summer, resulting in 20 cm water transparency and 223 μg dm−3 of chlorophyll-a. The zooplankton community was dominated by rotifers. The main source of nutrients was the River Nielba. Spatial external nutrient loading was 1.93 g P m−2 yr−1 and 77.55 g N m−2 yr−1. An even higher load of phosphorus was released from the bottom sediments, 2.18 g P m−2 yr−1. A comprehensive action plan is required, aiming at the reduction of both external and internal nutrient loading. A series of solutions regarding local environmental conditions should be applied in the lake catchment, including biogeochemical barriers, denitrification walls, artificial retention basins or wetlands, but most of all – improvement in the functioning of the wastewater treatment plant. Restoration is possible, however, protection measures reducing external loading should be undertaken prior to phosphorus inactivation in the water column and in the bottom sediments, supported by biological methods e.g. biomanipulation.
Paweł Marcinkowski, Mikołaj Piniewski, Ignacy Kardel, Raghavan Srinivasan and Tomasz Okruszko
This study presents an application of the SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) in two meso-scale catchments in Poland (Upper Narew and Barycz), contrasting in terms of human pressures on water quantity and quality. The main objective was multi-variable and multi-site calibration and validation of the model against daily discharge, sediment and nutrient loads as well as discussion of challenges encountered in calibration phase. Multi-site calibration and validation gave varied results ranging from very good (daily discharge) to acceptable (sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus loads in most of gauges) and rather poor (individual gauges for all variables) in both catchments. The calibrated models enabled spatial quantification of water yield, sediment and nutrient loads, indicating areas of special concern in terms of pollution, as well as estimation of contribution of pollution from different sources, indicating agriculture as the most important source in both catchments. During the calibration process a number of significant issues were encountered: (i) global vs. local parametrization, (ii) simulation of different pools of water quality parameters in reservoirs and streams and (iii) underestimation of NO3-N loads in winter due to farmers practices. Discussion of these issues is hoped to aid SWAT model users in Poland in a deeper understanding of mechanisms of multi-variable and multi-site calibration.
Maciej Kostecki, Malwina Tytła, Joanna Kernert and Katarzyna Stahl
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