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A shallow lake in an agricultural landscape – water quality, nutrient loads, future management

Abstract

Qualitative analyses of nitrogen and phosphorus loads reaching the lake ecosystem provide a basis for pollution control, which is of paramount importance in shallow lakes due to the rapid turn-over of matter and energy. The studies of both external and internal loading were conducted in Lake Łeknenskie, a very shallow, through-flow lake situated in Western Poland. Strong eutrophication is manifested in rich rush vegetation and a lack of submerged macrophytes as well as nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations (max 13.04 mg N dm−3 and 0.32 mg P dm−3, respectively). Constant domination of cyanobacteria in the phytoplankton community was noted in almost all seasons with a 98% share in summer, resulting in 20 cm water transparency and 223 μg dm−3 of chlorophyll-a. The zooplankton community was dominated by rotifers. The main source of nutrients was the River Nielba. Spatial external nutrient loading was 1.93 g P m−2 yr−1 and 77.55 g N m−2 yr−1. An even higher load of phosphorus was released from the bottom sediments, 2.18 g P m−2 yr−1. A comprehensive action plan is required, aiming at the reduction of both external and internal nutrient loading. A series of solutions regarding local environmental conditions should be applied in the lake catchment, including biogeochemical barriers, denitrification walls, artificial retention basins or wetlands, but most of all – improvement in the functioning of the wastewater treatment plant. Restoration is possible, however, protection measures reducing external loading should be undertaken prior to phosphorus inactivation in the water column and in the bottom sediments, supported by biological methods e.g. biomanipulation.

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Challenges in modelling of water quantity and quality in two contrasting meso-scale catchments in Poland

Abstract

This study presents an application of the SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) in two meso-scale catchments in Poland (Upper Narew and Barycz), contrasting in terms of human pressures on water quantity and quality. The main objective was multi-variable and multi-site calibration and validation of the model against daily discharge, sediment and nutrient loads as well as discussion of challenges encountered in calibration phase. Multi-site calibration and validation gave varied results ranging from very good (daily discharge) to acceptable (sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus loads in most of gauges) and rather poor (individual gauges for all variables) in both catchments. The calibrated models enabled spatial quantification of water yield, sediment and nutrient loads, indicating areas of special concern in terms of pollution, as well as estimation of contribution of pollution from different sources, indicating agriculture as the most important source in both catchments. During the calibration process a number of significant issues were encountered: (i) global vs. local parametrization, (ii) simulation of different pools of water quality parameters in reservoirs and streams and (iii) underestimation of NO3-N loads in winter due to farmers practices. Discussion of these issues is hoped to aid SWAT model users in Poland in a deeper understanding of mechanisms of multi-variable and multi-site calibration.

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Temporal and spatial variability in concentrations of phosphorus species under thermal pollution conditions of a dam reservoir – the Rybnik Reservoir case study

. (in Polish) Koszelnik, P. (2007). Atmosphere deposition as a source of nitrogen and phosphorus loads into Rzeszow reservoir, SE Poland, Environmental Protection Engineering , 33, 2, pp. 157–164. Kowalczewska-Madura, K., Jeszke, B., Furmanek, S. & Gołdyn, R. (2005). Spatial and seasonal variation of phosphorus fraction in bottom sediments of the hypertrophic Swarzędzkie Lake (W Poland), Limnological Review , 5, pp. 123–128. Kowalczewska-Madura, K., Gołdyn, R. & Dera, M. (2015). Spatial and seasonal changes of phosphorus internal loading in two

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Spatio-temporal changes in water quality in an eutrophic lake with artificial aeration

aerl H.W. 2016. Mitigating harmful cyanobacterial blooms: strategies for control of nitrogen and phosphorus loads. Aquatic Ecology. Vol. 50. Iss. 3 p. 351–366. I lnicki P. 2014. Emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus into rivers from agricultural land – selected controversial issues. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 23 p. 31–40. DOI 10.1515/jwld-2014-0027. I mteaz M.A., A saeda T. 2000. Artificial mixing of lake water by bubble plume and effects of bubbling operations on algal bloom. Water Research. Vol. 34. Iss. 6 p. 1919–1929. L awson

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EU Project of Life Programme “Algae Service for Life” Creates Tools for Ecological Service to Mitigate Cyanobacteria and Macroalgae Blooms in Freshwater Ecosystems

: Reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus loads to European rivers by riparian buffer zones. − Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, 408(08): 1–15. W ulff F., H umborg C., A ndersen H.E., B licher -M athiesen G., C zajkowski M., E lofsson K., F onnesbech -W ulff A., H asler B., H ong B., J ansons V., M örth C.-M., S mart J.C.R., S medberg E., S tålnacke P., S waney D.P., T hodsen H., W as A., Z ylicz T., 2014: Reduction of the Baltic Sea Nutrient Inputs and Allocation of Abatement Costs Within the Baltic Sea Catchment. − AMBIO, 43: 11–25.

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Gis Approach to Estimation of the Total Phosphorous Transfer in the Pilica River Lowland Catchment

. Poland. (in Polish). PCSO, 2012. Polish Central Statistical Office. Environment Protection 2012. (in Polish). PGI, 2007. Polish Geological Institute, Map of areas at risk of flooding in Poland. Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw. Poland Pieterse N.M., Bleuten W. Jørgensen S.E., 2003, Contribution of point sources and diffuse sources to nitrogen and phosphorus loads in lowland river tributaries. Journal of Hydrology 27: 1213-225. Russell M.J., Weller D.E., Jordan T.E., Sigwart K.J., Sullivan K.J., 2008. Net

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Analysis of efficiency of pollution reduction measures in rural basin using MIKE Basin model. Case study: Olšava River Basin

. (Eds.): Geomorhoplogical Variations. P3K, Prague, 221-252. Kulasova, A., Smith, P.J., Beven, K.J., Blazkova, S.D., Hlavacek, J., 2012. A method of computing uncertain nitrogen and phosphorus loads in a small stream from an agricultural catchment using continuous monitoring data. J. Hydrol., 458, 1-8. Langhammer, J., 2004. Modelling the structural changes of water quality in the Elbe river basin. Ekologia Bratislava, 23, 157-169. Langhammer, J., 2010. Water quality changes in the Elbe River basin, Czech Republic, in the

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Utilization of Historical Maps in the Land Use Change Impact Studies: A Case Study from Myjava River Basin

the nitrogen and phosphorus load delivered to surface waters: the export coefficient modelling approach . Journal of Hydrology, 183(3), pp. 323-349. Kohnová, S. – Karabová, B. – Hlavčová, K. (2015) On the Possibilities of Watershed Parameterization for Extreme Flow Estimation in Ungauged Basins. In: Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. Vol. 370, (2015), online, pp. 171-175. ISSN 2199-8981. Kubíček, F. - Kanka, R. (2015) Lesy na viatych pieskoch Borskej nížiny (Forests of the eolitic sand dunes in the Bor Lowland

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