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References [1] Martin van Creveld, The Transformation of War , New York, The Free Press, 1991, pp. 33-62, 192-222 [2] Herfried Münkler, The New Wars , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 1-3. [3] Ibidem , pp. 8-11 [4] Ibidem , pp. 14-15 [5] Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars , Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2001, pp. 1-2. [6] Ibidem , p. 4 [7] Mary Kaldor; Basker Vashee, Restructuring the Global Military Sector, Volume I: New Wars , London, Washington, Pinter, 2001, p. 8 [8] Mary Kaldor, “In Defence of New Wars”, Stability , 2(1): 4, 2013

_war_on_the_islamic_state_oil_kuwait_qatar (consulted 22 November 2104) Kaldor, M. (2012). New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, 3rd Edition . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Kaldor, M. (2013). In Defence of New Wars. Stability, 2(1) (4), 1-16. Kingsley, P. (2014). Who is behind ISIS’s terrifying online propaganda operation? http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/23/who-behind-isis-propaganda-operation-iraq (consulted 22 November 2014) Knights, M. (2014). ISIL’s Political-Military Power in Iraq. CTC Sentinel, 7 (8), 1-7. Lannin, S. (2014). Islamic State far greater threat than Al Qaeda

References [1] Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001; Mary Kaldor; Basker Vashee, (eds. on behalf of UNU World Institute for Development Economic Research), Restructuring the Global Military Sector. Volume I: New Wars, London, Washington: Pinter, 2001. [2] Herfried Münkler, The New Wars, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005. [3] Mark Duffield, Global Governance and the New Wars. The Merging of Development and Security, London, New York: Zed Books, 2001. [4] Dietrich Jung; Klaus Schlichte, “From Inter-State War to

25 Berta Jasiukėnaitė* Institute of International Relations and Political Science of the University of Vilnius The Conception of the “New Wars”: a Question of Validity This article analyses the concept of the “new wars”, especially the claim of its authors that conventional interstate war is no longer viable, as the nature of organized violence has changed completely. The article questions the validity of such a statement by showing that the “new wars” idea lacks historical precision and is based on a misperception of the theoretical model developed by Carl

Abstract

How has war journalism changed since the end of the Cold War? After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, there was talk of a new world order. The Balkan Wars of the 1990s gave rise to the concept of “new wars”. The 1990-91 Gulf War was the commercial breakthrough for the around-the-clock news channel CNN, and the war in Afghanistan in 2001 for its competitor al-Jazeera. The 2003 Iraq war saw Internet’s great breakthrough in war journalism. A new world order, new wars, and new media – what impact is all this having on war journalism? This article outlines some important trends based on recent media research and discusses the new challenges as well as the consequences they entail for the conditions of war journalism, its professional reflexivity and democratic role.

Abstract

Nowadays, Iranian foreign policy is developing following a defensive line along three axes: nuclear energy, respect of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Peace in the Middle East. This paper analyzes the strategical role of Iran in reaction to the new Trump policies. There is international apprehension about the issue of nuclear weapons, a matter that reflects an alarming situation that could lead to the opening of a new war front.

Abstract

Recent terrorist attacks in Brussels, Paris and Istanbul, are shaking a world bewildered of daily fear of violence, while the contemporary consumer has to deal with the “new wars” emerging in the context of the current socio-economic and political context. The issue is especially thorny since, most of the times, the “enemy” the citizens must face is unknown, not only when it comes to terrorist attacks, but also when dealing with the question of the “enemy” in foods purchased for consumption (food security) or the security of personal data when accessing and using the Internet (cyber security). Consequently, this paper attempts to highlight the way in which the safety and security needs of the contemporary consumer have diversified over time, often becoming determinants of social behavior in general, and of the buying and consumption behavior, in particular.

Abstract

The study of the cultural factor’s influence on military actions is not a recent issue, the main concerns being aimed at identifying some solutions for the improvement of the cooperation between different national contingents during stability and support operations. Instead, the use of culture as a weapon in the sense of military capability used to predict and influence the behavior of target groups is a completely new approach, currently being within reach of only few modern armies. From another perspective, the possibility of using engagement as a new war fighting function, assuming the development of skills and capabilities necessary to deal with the local population and regional security forces, determines the necessity to educate and develop a cultural capability for all military personnel. This can be identified as a real solution for the military forces in improving their missions’ accomplishment within the context of current and future operational environments.

References Collins, John & Glover, Ross (eds) (2002) Collateral Language. A User’s Guide to America’s New War. New York: New York University Press. Dubose, Lou; Reid, Jan & Cannon, Carl M. (2003) Karl Rove, the Brains Behind the Remarkable Political Triumph of George W Bush. New York: PublicAffairs. Edelman, Murray (1971) Politics as Symbolic Action. Mass Arousal and Quiescence, Chicago: Markham. Egan, Danielle R. (2002) ‘Anthrax’, in Collins, John & Glover, Ross (eds) (2002) Collateral Language. A User’s Guide to America’s New War. New York: New York University

References Berdal, Mats ‘The “New Wars” Thesis Revisited’ in Hew Strachan and Sibylle Scheipers (eds), The Changing Character of War, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 109-10. Galeotti, Mark. 2016. Hybrid War or Gibridnaya Voina? Getting Russia’s non-linear military challenge right: Mayak Intelligence. Galeotti, Mark, and Andrew S. Bowen. 2014. “Putin’s Empire of the Mind.” Foreign Policy , 2014. 206. Bērziņš, Jānis. 2014a. Russia’s New Generation Warfare in Ukraine: Implications for Latvian defense policy. Riga: National Defence Academy of Latvia