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Abstract

Existing global models of interaction between the solar wind (SW) and the local interstellar medium (LISM) describe the heliosphere that arises as a result of this interaction. There is a strong motivation to develop a kinetic model using the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method to describe phenomena which appear in the heliosphere. This is however a long term scientific goal. This paper describes an electrostatic Particle-in-Cell numerical model developed in the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw, which includes mechanical and charge exchange collisions between particles in the probabilistic manner using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. This is the first step into developing simulations of the heliosphere incorporating kinetic effects in collisionless plasmas. In this paper we focus only on presenting the work, which have been done on the numerical PIC algorithm.

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state of matter, has been known for a very long time. Plasma can be defined as a partly or fully ionized gas containing charged and neutral particles, e.g. electrons, positive and negative ions, molecules, radicals and atoms [ 3 , 15 – 17 ]. In recent years, the use of plasma treatment of polymers for modification of their surface properties has been studied as an environmentally friendly alternative to the wet chemical techniques [ 1 , 11 , 15 , 18 ]. This kind of surface modification has many advantages, including modification of just the outermost atomic layers

Monte Carlo engine. 10 GPUs parallel threads allow for running the inherently parallel neutral particle Monte Carlo transport simulations approximately hundred times faster than on a comparably priced CPU thus significantly reducing the time required for the reconstruction. As increased computational capacity allows for better physics modelling the main novelty of this code is the ability of full particle transport modelling as accurate as it is worthwhile in hope of improving image quality. 11 Contrary to expectations such faithful physics modelling in the back