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The AIM of this review was to present the modern concepts of diagnostic imaging in acute stroke. Neuroimaging in acute stroke aims at diagnosing the condition as early as possible and assessing the extent of parenchymal perfusion and the intracranial vessels patency. A modern approach would involve a combination of various imaging modalities as multidetector computed tomography and high field magnetic resonance imaging. A non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is used to detect hemorrhage or to identify early signs of ischemic stroke. CT angiography finds evidence of intravascular thrombi or significant stenoses, and CT perfusion displays brain tissue at risk of irreversible alterations that can be salvaged therapeutically. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a more sensitive modality than CT in diagnosing acute brain ischemia. MR diffusion-weighted imaging is more sensitive than conventional MR sequences in hyperacute stage. MR angiography as a non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging method is used as an alternative modality to CT angiography. To find brain tissue at risk diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging modalities are used. The authors present briefly the modern neuroimaging modalities used in patients with transient ischemic attack, minor stroke and venous infarction. By combining different imaging techniques in a multimodal approach we can acquire the information necessary for therapeutic planning and differentiate patients who need thrombolysis.
We report on a case of a 47-year-old female patient with a long history of low back pain irradiating bilaterally to the legs. Twenty days before admission to our clinic, she had developed progressive weakness in the legs, more pronounced on the left side. The initial neurological examination revealed signs of damage to both the cauda equina and the spinal cord. The neuroimaging studies (computed tomography, myelography and magnetic-resonance tomography) found spinal stenosis most severe at L4-L5 level, and right lateral thoracic intradural-extramedullary tumor at T9-T10 level.
The patient underwent two neurosurgical procedures. The first stage included microsurgical resection of the thoracic lesion and the second stage aimed at decompressing the lumbar spinal stenosis.
To avoid missing a diagnosis of thoracic lesions, it is necessary to perform a thorough neurological examination of the spinal cord motor and sensory functions. In addition, further MRI examination of upper spinal segment is needed if the neuroimaging studies of the lumbar spine fail to provide reasonable explanation for the existing neurological symptoms.
The text concerns the role of emotions in delusion formation. Provided are definitions from DSM-V and DSM-IV-R and the problems found in those definitions. One of them, the problem of delusion formation, is described when providing cognitive theories of delusions. The core of the paper is a presentation of the emotional and affective disorders in delusions, especially Capgras delusion and Cotard delusion. The author provides a comparison of the kinds of delusions and the conclusions taken from neuroimaging studies. As a result of the fact that an explanation of delusion formation focusing on emotional problems turns out to be insufficient, the author provides examples of the reasoning impairments which coexist with them. At the end of the article, some hypotheses are proposed concerning the role of emotions and reasoning in delusion formation and the relation between belief disorders and emotional disorders.
A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) is a state of emergency and an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. The social significance of the disease is determined, based on the probability of occurrence of subsequent cerebrovascular incidents and their frequency among groups. The purpose of the present study was to perform a comparative analysis of clinical features and outcome in patients with TIA for at least 24 months after onset had been registered, according to the pathogenesis and to ABCD (2) score. Two hundred and fifty-seven patients were monitored at the Neurology Clinic, First MHAT – Sofia after suffering an initial TIA. All subjects were studied using a clinical evaluation of pathogenetic mechanisms and an ABCD (2) algorithm. A diagnosis of TIA was confirmed by neuroimaging. The comparison between specific pathogenetic mechanisms demonstrated a statistically significant difference. Two TIA subgroups were involved – thromboembolic and cryptogenic (p<0.05). Also, according to the ABCD (2) score results, significant differences were found between groups at low (1-3) and high (6-7) risk, and those at intermediate (4-5) and high risk (p<0.01). Detailed investigation and assessment of patients with TIA are important concerning the prognostic outcome.