Swaminathan Ganesh, Mala Dharmalingam and Sara Marcus
Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes with Iron Deficiency in Asian Indians
A close relationship exists between iron metabolism, diabetes and oxidative stress. Both diabetes and redox active iron are individually known to enhance oxidative stress. However, the role of iron deficiency and oxidative stress in diabetes is not clear; hence, the levels of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes with and without iron deficiency have been compared. Two groups of 30 patients each with diabetes were selected (one group with iron deficiency and the other group with normal iron levels) and compared with 30 normal healthy controls. The anthropometric parameters, fasting blood sugar, iron profile and oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde levels (index of lipid peroxidation) and serum uric acid levels (antioxidant)) were measured. While the diabetes group had significantly increased serum levels of ferritin (an acute phase reactant and antioxidant) in comparison with normal controls (P=0.040), the diabetic group with iron deficiency had decreased serum levels of iron (P =0.000), ferritin (P = 0.000) and uric acid (P = 0.006) and increased levels of malondialdehyde (P = 0.000) in comparison with diabetics without iron deficiency. This study shows an increase in oxidative stress in the diabetic group with iron deficiency together with reduction in antioxidant levels could further promote prooxidant levels and inflammation and in turn result in the development of complications in this high-risk Asian Indian population.