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: Tourism and Climate Change: Knowledge Gaps and Issues. Tourism Recreation Research , 33 (3): 339-350. Hambira, W.L., Saarinen, J., Manwa, H. and Atlhopheng, J.R., 2013: Climate Change Adaptation Practices in Nature-Based Tourism in Maun in the Okavango Delta area Botswana: How Prepared are Tourism Businesses? Tourism Review International, 17: 19-29. Hoogendoorn, G. and Fitchett, M.J., 2016: Tourism and Climate Change: A Review of Threats and Adaptation Strategies for Africa. Current Issues in Tourism , 21(7): 742-759. Hoogendoorn, G., Grant, B. and Fitchett, M. J

References AKAMA J.S., 1996, Western Environmental Values and Naturebased Tourism in Kenya, Tourism Management, 17 (8). ALAEDDINOGLU F., CAN A.S., 2011, Identification and Classification of Nature-based Tourism Resources: Western Lake Van Basin, Turkey, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 19. BLAMEY R., 2001, Principles of Ecotourism, in: The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism, D.B. Weaver, CABI Publishing, Wallingford. BUDOWSKI G., 1976, Tourism and Environmental Conservation: Conflict, Coexistence, or Symbiosis?, Environmental Conservation, 3. CAMPBELL L., 1999

Publishing. Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1996). Tourism, ecotourism, and protected areas: The State of Nature-based Tourism around the World and Guidelines for Its Development . Gland, Switzerland: Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature et de ses Ressources. Cobbinah, P. B. (2015). Contextualising the meaning of ecotourism. Tourism Management Perspectives , 16, 179–189. DOI: 10.1016/j.tmp.2015.07.015. Cristureanu, C. (2006). Strategies and transactions in international tourism . Bucharest, Romania: Beck. Das, M., & Chatterjee, B. (2015). Ecotourism: A panacea


Tourist ascents of mountain peaks before sunrise are increasingly popular. Babia Góra (Western Carpathians) is a peak on the Polish-Slovak border frequently visited by a great number of tourists at sunrise. The main objective of our research, based on the case study of Babia Gora, was to answer a more general question whether the sunrise can be considered a tourist attraction. The research included the observation and description of every sunrise at summer holiday weekends during 2012 from the peak of Babia Góra as well as the collection of data on the number of tourists and weather conditions. Survey interviews, using questionnaire, with randomly selected hikers present on the peak of Babia Góra at sunrise (269) were conducted. The investigation showed that during summer holiday sunrises there were a maximum of 130 people on the summit of Babia Góra at the same time. Most of the surveyed people (84%) agreed that the opportunity to observe the sunrise was one of the pull factors for them. This confirms the hypothesis that sunrise constitutes a tourist attraction.


This paper interrogates the geography of tourism innovation in the Western Cape, South Africa. In particular, innovations by tourism firms are mapped and local tourism innovation networks are analysed. Networking behaviour is examined since it is regarded as indispensable for accessing knowledge and learning for innovation purposes. The analysis draws on a broader investigation of tourism innovation and networking within the Western Cape province. It is revealed that the main tourist regions in the Western Cape are also the most innovative. Whilst external networking relations are observed to be highly significant for tourism innovation, local embeddedness remains critical for stimulating path creation and exploiting local core competencies for the competitiveness and survival of tourism firms and destinations.

-30 DABPHETA, S., SCOTT, N., RUHANEN, L. (2012), “Applying diffusion theory to destination stakeholder understanding of sustainable tourism development: a case from Thailand”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(8): 1107-1124 DUFFY, R. ( 2015), “Nature-based tourism and neoliberalism: concealing contradictions”. Tourism Geographies, 17(4): 529-543 FLORIDA, R. (2002), The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books GREENWOOD, D. J. (1989), “Culture by the pound: An anthropological perspective on

References [1] Alberts, A., & Baldacchino, G. (2017). Resilience and tourism in islands: insights from the Caribbean. In R. W. Butler (Ed.), Tourism and resilience (pp. 150-162). Oxforshire, UK; Boston, MA: CABI. [2] Almeida, A., Soares, J., & Alves, A. (2013): As Levadas da Made ira no Contexto da Afirmação e da Confluência do Turismo de Natureza com o Turismo Ativo. Revista Portuguesa de Estudos Regionais , 33, 28-42. [3] Arnegger, J., Woltering, M., & Job, H. (2010). Toward a product-based typology for nature-based tourism: a conceptual framework. Journal

) . Faculty of Tourism Bar. Lim, C. and Pan, G. W. (2003). An Econometric Analysis of Inbound Tourism for China . International Congress on Modeling and Simulation 3. Liu, P., Zhou, L., and Chandnani, R. (2013). Preferences and attitudes of Chinese outbound travelers: The hotel industry welcomes a growing market segment. Cornell Hospitality Report , 13, p. 6-15. Packer, J., Ballantyne, R., and Hughes, K. (2014). Chinese and Australian tourists’ attitudes to nature, animals and environmental issues: Implications for the design of nature-based tourism experiences. Tourism

-dynamic segmentation approach to planning travel routes on forest trail networks in Central Taiwan. Landscape and Urban Planning, 97 (4), 221-228. Cieszewska A., Drexler D., Kalincsák P., Belova O., Prochazka J. 2010. Eastern Region. Management of Recreation and Nature Based Tourism in European Forests. Springer, 115-139. Curtin K.M. 2007. Network Analysis in Geographic Information Science: Review, Assessment, and Projections. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 34 (2), 103-111. Dion C.P., Woodside A.G. 2010. Usefulness of government and private destination websites

, (2004). Effective satisfaction and servicios of leisure and tourism. J. Eco and Business , 21, 89-120. Browne, T. (1992). Landscape survey over the perception of tourist in polland, Jouranal of landscape, 04, 08. Buckley, R., (2003). The practice and politics of tourism and land management, In nature-based tourism, Environment and land management 2.7, Cambridge (CABI Publishing). Carl, O.C., (1925). The Morphology of Landscape”. University of California Publications in Geography , 02, 37. Chi, T. & Qu, H., (2008, 15th February). Tourism and Landscape: Between