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-East Asia, Tourism Management, 18 (1). DUDEK S., KOWALCZYK A., 2003, Turystyka na obszarach chronionych - szanse i zagrożenia, Prace i Studia Geograficzne, 32. FENNELL D., 2001, A Content Analysis of Ecotourism Definitions, Current Issues in Tourism, 4 (5). GOELDNER CH.R., RITCHIE J.R.B., 2009, Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey. GOODWIN H., 1996, In Pursuit of Ecotourism, Biodiversity and Conservation, 5 (3). GRENIER A.A., 2004, The Nature of Nature Tourism, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi. HIGGINBOTTOM K., 2004, Wildlife Tourism

Abstract

Up-to-date nature tourism trends witness a growth of customer-oriented unique experiences. The present paper explores the potential of treehouses in nature tourism development in Latvia by providing unique and authentic experiences. Using the method of practical modelling several distinct treehouse construction methods are compared considering regional differences and different use cases. To achieve the set goal, three separate practical modelling workshops in different municipalities in Latvia were organised during the summer holidays of 2016–2018. History and construction types of treehouses were analysed as well as 30 experts from the local municipalities, treehouse companies, workshop participants, clients and customers were interviewed. The presented study is based on the 4-year experience of participation in several European treehouse workshops and organisation of the local treehouse activities and events in Latvia as well as learnings from managing an outdoor recreation company “Movement Spontaneous” and co-founding the Latvian Outdoor Association “Outdoor Club Latvia” in 2018.

Abstract

Introduction. This paper examines the nature tourism satisfaction of tourists visiting Okomu National Park (ONP) in Edo State, Nigeria.

Material and methods. Questionnaires were randomly administered to tourists visiting the park. Factor analysis was employed to identify the major issues influencing tourist satisfaction when visiting national parks.

Results. The results indicated that the majority of the tourists were youth and were first-time visitors. Furthermore, the results revealed that management, interpretation, accessibility, and expectation are the major requirements for ensuring a good experience and satisfaction when visiting national parks.

Conclusion. The results of the research reveal that in order to promote tourist satisfaction, managers of national parks need to pay attention to the proper management of the flora and fauna, including the interpretation of natural features.

.1080/10548408.2010.526897 [27] Kim, J., Ritchie, J., & McCormick, B. (2012). Development of a Scale to Measure Memorable Tourism Experiences. Journal of Travel Research , 51(1), 12–25. Doi: 10.1177/0047287510385467 [28] Klaus, P., & Maklan, S. (2011). Bridging the gap for destination extreme sports: A model of sports tourism customer experience. Journal of Marketing Management , 27(13), 1341–1365. Doi: 10.1080/0267257X.2011.624534 [29] Laing, J., & Frost, W. (2017). Nature and Well-being: Explorer Travel Narratives of Transformation. In Nature Tourism . Edited by Edited ByJoseph S. Chen

Zusammenfassung

Nationalparke stellen die weltweit älteste und bekannteste Flächenschutzkategorie dar. Sie haben eine bipolare Aufgabenstellung. Im Vordergrund steht der für die Fachplanung Naturschutz relativ junge Prozessschutz. Für das eine lange Kulturlandschaftsgeschichte und vergleichsweise hohe Besiedlungsdichte aufweisende Mitteleuropa ist er wegen der Landnutzungskonkurrenzen und raumfunktionalen Konflikte schwierig umzusetzen. Daneben dienen Nationalparke dem Naturtourismus. Wie sonst soll die „Wildnis“-Idee den Menschen nahegebracht werden? Nationalparke stellen für periphere, strukturschwache ländliche Räume potenzielle Motoren einer endogenen Regionalentwicklung dar. Diese basiert vor allem auf dem wirtschaftlich komplex vernetzten Naherholungs- und Fremdenverkehr – in Zukunft mehr noch als heute. Denn der demographische Wandel wird dort zu erheblichen Bevölkerungsverlusten führen. Chancen eröffnen sich gerade in dünn besiedelten Regionen. Dort sollten Raumplanungsinstitutionen proaktiv mit dieser Thematik umgehen und somit helfen, langfristig regionale Identitäten neu zu schaffen. Um die derzeit bestehenden Lücken bei Moorlandschaften, Fließgewässern und Auen, Buchen- und Mischwaldgesellschaften sowie auf offener See hin zu einer repräsentativen Abdeckung der mitteleuropäischen Naturräume zu schließen, wird die Zahl von maximal 20 Nationalparke in Deutschland als Richtwert erachtet. Insbesondere größere zusammenhängende Waldgebiete und ehemalige Truppenübungsplätze stellen Potenzialräume für künftige Nationalparke dar. Sowohl aus naturschutzfachlicher Sicht als auch aus Perspektive des Besuchermanagements sollten bestehende und künftige Nationalparke unbedingt größer als 10.000 ha sein.

REFERENCES Ceballos-Lascuráin H., 1998, Ecoturismo. Naturaleza y Desarrollo Sostenible , Editorial Diana, México. Ministerio del Ambiente y Energía (MINAE), 1999, Tablas Estadísticas , San José, Costa Rica. Morera Beita C.M., 2001, El desarrollo turístico de Costa Rica: un modelo en conformación , Revista GeoNotas, Departamento de Geografía, Universidad Estadual de Maringá, vol. 5, 2. Place S., 1991, Nature tourism and rural development in Tortuguero, [in:] Annals of Tourism Research , vol. 18, pp. 186 – 201. Place S., 1998, How sustainable is ecotourism in

loisirs sportifs de pleine nature /Tourism management and the great outdoor sport/. Voiron: Presses universitaires du sport. Dolnicar, S. (2005). Understanding Barriers to Leisure Travel -Tourist Fears as Marketing Basis. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 11(3), 197-208. Dureau, F., Hily, M.A. (2009). Les mondes de la mobilité /The mobility world/. Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes. Frost, F., Shankra, T. (1999). Asian Australian Student Travel Preferences - An empirical study. Proceedings of Asia Pacific Tourism Association Fifth Annual Conference 23

drink (hang out) 0.806 cultural visits 0.801 adm. management 0.743 gambling 0.684 shopping 0.663 theme park visits 0.636 0.644 visits to family or friends −0.710 −0.611 religious events − 0.751 sports 0.856 spa_thalassotherapy 0.504 conferences and meetings −0.603 −0.656 cultural shows − 0.637 sports events − 0.723 shopping −0.425 cullinary activities −0.559 nature tourism − 0.655 Supplementary variables (correlations) nautical sports 0.664 0.495 outdoor sports −0.448 0.477 extreme sports −0.434 0.312 snow and skiing −0.264 0.409 Source: own study. Factor loadings

1985 r. o drogach publicznych [Act on public roads of 21th March 1985]. Dz.U. 2016. Nr 14 poz. 903. Ustawa z dnia 28 września 1991 r. o lasach [Act on forest areas of 28th September 1991]. Dz.U. 2016. Nr 101 poz. 1020. YAN CHIU H., CHAN C-S., MARAFA L.M. 2016. Local perception and preferences in nature tourism in Hong Kong. Tourism Management Perspectives. No. 20 p. 87-97.

: http://www.landsskipulag.is/media/pdf-skjol/Landsskipulagsstefna_2015-2026_asamt_greinargerd.pdf SÆÞÓRSDÓTTIR, A. D. (2010): Tourism struggling as the Icelandic wilderness is developed. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 10(3): 334–357. SÆÞÓRSDÓTTIR, A. D. (2012): Tourism and power plant development: An attempt to solve land use conflicts. Tourism Planning & Development, 9(4): 339–353. SÆÞÓRSDÓTTIR, A. D., ÓLAFSSON, R. (2010a): Nature tourism assessment in the Icelandic Master Plan for geothermal and hydropower development. Part I: rapid evaluation of