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The article presents the original findings of Paracoenogonimus ovatus (Katsurada,1914) in fish in the Southern Bug and the Inhul rivers in Mykolaiv Region in 2012-2014. The roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna), bream (Abramis brama), crucian (Carassius gibelio), rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), pike (Esox lucius), pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) were found to be infected with metacercariae of P. ovatus. Metacercariae of P. ovatus are described based on the original material. The highest prevalence of infection was observed in the roach, 82.3 %, the pike was infected in the less degree, with prevalence of 15.3 %. The infection intensity was highest in the roach, up to 247 specimens; that of the pikeperch was the lowest - 17 specimens. The highest occurrence of P. ovatus was observed in the parts of the river Southern Bug in Zhovtnevy, Mykolaiv, Novoodesky Districts, whereas in Voznesenky, Pervomaysky Discticts and in the city of Mykolaiv the occurrence was the lowest. In the area of the river Inhul the parasite was observed mostly in the waters of Bashtansky District in Mykolaiv Region.

relation to natural reservoir of emerging viruses. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. , 30 (5‒6), 357—374. DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2007.05.006. 40. Peel, A. J., Baker, K. S., Crameri, G., Barr, J. A., Hayman, D. T. S., Wright, E., et al., 2012: Henipavirus neutralising antibodies in an isolated island population of African fruit bats. PLoS One , 7 (1), e30346. . 41. Peel, A. J., Pulliam, J. R. C., Luis, A. D., Plowright, R. K., O’Shea, T. J., Hayman, D. T. S., et al., 2014: The effect of seasonal birth pulses on pathogen


The alternative energy sources have been getting popular for last decades as a new way to obtain enough energy especially for countries which do not have rich natural reservoirs of fossil fuels. Gathering the thermal energy from the solar radiation seems to be as one of the cheapest alternatives of them. The disadvantage of it is the overflow of the heat energy during the summer and lack of them during the winter, when the demand for heat is on top. The underground thermal energy storage can be a good alternative for accumulating the heat energy and then offers it on demand. However, it is difficult to monitor the real physical condition in the soil. In the article, the results of numerical simulation are shown as a good way for a better identification of the process of accumulating the energy to the soil material.


Introduction: The genomes of nine H5 subtypes of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) strains identified in wild birds in Poland between 2010 and 2015 were sequenced, and their phylogenetic relationship was determined.

Material and Methods: AIV genome segments were amplified by RT-PCR and the PCR products were sequenced using Sanger method. Phylogenetic trees were generated in MEGA6 software and digital genotyping approach was used to visualise the relationship between analysed strains and other AIVs.

Results: High genetic diversity was found in the analysed strains as multiple subgroups were identified in phylogenetic trees. In the HA tree, Polish strains clustered in two distinct subclades. High diversity was found for PB2, PB1, PA and NP, since 5-8 sublineages could be distinguished. Each strain had a different gene constellation, although relationship of as much as six out of eight gene segments was observed between two isolates. A relationship with poultry isolates was found for at least one segment of each Polish strain.

Conclusion: The genome configuration of tested strains indicates extensive reassortment, although the preference for specific gene constellation could be noticed. A significant relationship with isolates of poultry origin underlines the need for constant monitoring of the AIV gene pool circulating in the natural reservoir.

Filtry piaskowe w ochronie roślin przed chorobami w szkółkach


The results of a study of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) isolated in natural reservoirs in Ukraine are presented. The pathogenicity of isolates was investigated in vitro on cell cultures and in vivo on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), fingerlings. Experimental indications were that the Ukrainian IPNV isolates have affinity with reference European strains. During the reproduction of these isolates in cell cultures of FHM (fat head minnow), RTG-2 (rainbow trout gonads), and BF-2 (bluegill caudal peduncle), complicated degenerative changes were visible that finally led to the full destruction of cell monolayers. The experimental infection of rainbow trout fingerlings resulted in typical disease symptoms that were systemic. However, obvious evidence of viral infection was noted in single individuals only, and the majority of experimental fish died without visible disease symptoms. During the study of physicochemical properties, it was noted that Ukrainian isolates completely lost their infectivity with chloroform treatment and heating to 60°C. This proved that IPNV isolates are resistant to Ion concentrations in the range of pH 3.0 to 12.0.

., Antonov, N. P. (2002): Natural mortality assessment of marine commercial fish populations of the Kamchatka shelf. Fishery issues, 450-463. Melnychuk, G. L. (1986): Methodical recommendations on the application of modern methods to the study of fish nutrition and the calculation of fish products by the forage base in natural reservoirs (In Russian). GosNIORH Publishing House, Leningrad, 38. Mina, M. V., Klevezal, G. A. (1976): Growth of animals, analysis on the level of organism. M. Nauka, (In Russian), Moscow. Nathanailides, C., Tsoumani, M., Papazogloy, A. and Paschos

infection in Europe. Vet. Parasitol ., 163(4): 286 – 292 I onica A.M, M atei I.A, D’A mico G., D askalaki A.A., J uránkova J., I onescu D.T., M ihalca A.D., M odry D., G herman C.M. (2016). Role of golden jackals ( Canis aureus ) as natural reservoirs of Dirofilaria spp. in Romania. Parasit. Vectors , 9: 240. DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1524-3 J ohnson , C.A. (1975): Ursus americanus (Black Bear) a new host for Dirofilaria immitis . J. Parasitol ., 61(5): 940 K aramanlidis , A.A., D e G abriel H ernando , M., K rambokoukis , L., G imenez , O. (2015

−269. doi : 10.1016/j. aquabot.2004.08.006. Matuszkiewicz, W. (2008). Guide for the determination of plant communities in Polish (in Polish). Warsaw: PWN. Mioduszewski, W. (1995). The role of peatlands in the development of water resources of small river basins. Peatlands in research and practice (in Polish). Materiały Seminaryjne IMUZ, 34, 305−314. Muskoka Watershed Council (January 2013). Shoreline vegetative buffers. Namura-Ochalska, A. (2008). Mid-forest lakes oligo-humotrophic, as natural reservoirs (in Polish). In D. Anderwald (Ed.), Woda

.M., Matei, I.A., D’Amico, G., Daskalaki, A.A., Juránková, J., Ionescu, D.T., Mihalca, A.D., Modrý, D., Gherman, C.M. (2016): Role of golden jackals Canis aureus as natural reservoirs of Dirofilaria spp. in Romania. Parasit. Vectors , 9: 240. 10.1186/s13071-016-1524-3 27121617 Ionică A.M. Matei I.A. D’Amico G. Daskalaki A.A. Juránková J. Ionescu D.T. Mihalca A.D. Modrý D. Gherman C.M. 2016 Role of golden jackals Canis aureus as natural reservoirs of Dirofilaria spp. in Romania Parasit. Vectors 9 240 10.1186/s13071-016-1524-3 Jenkins, E.J., Appleyard, G.D., Hoberg