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The Legal Fiction of a Genuine Link as a Requirement for the Grant of Nationality to Ships and Humans – the Triumph of Formality over Substance?

References (alphabetical order) BATCHELOR, Carol A. Statelessness and the Problem of Resolving Nationality Status. International Journal of Refugee Law , Vol. 10, No. 1/2, 1998, p. 156. BROWN, Edward D. The International Law of the Sea, Volume 1: Introductory Manual. Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing Company Limited, 1994. CHAN, Johannes M.M. The Right to Nationality as a Human Right – The Current Trend Towards Recognition. Human Rights Law Journal , Vol. 12, No. 1–2, 1991, p. 1. CHURCHILL, Robin R, and LOWE, Alan V. The Law of the Sea

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Identity and distribution of the Silesian minority in Poland

Introduction There have been many discussions about the formal classification of Silesians. Sometimes they are considered as an ethnic minority, while other sources treat them as a Polish regional group ( Komisja Wspólna Rządu i Mniejszości Narodowych i Etnicznych 2014 ; Gostkiewicz 2016 ). In this paper, they are considered as a nationality, because in the Polish censuses of 2002 and 2011, people had the possibility of such self-identification ( GUS 2003 , 2015). According to Statistics Poland ( GUS 2015 ) nationality is a declared (based on subjective

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Margins of Nationality. External ethnic citizenship and non-discrimination

Exploration of Justice as Evenhandedness, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Dumbrava Costica, 2014, Nationality, Citizenship and Ethno-cultural Belonging. Preferential Membership Policies in Europe, Palgrave. Dworkin Ronald, 2011, Justice for Hedgehogs, Belknap, Cambridge, Mass. Gál Kinga, 2002, ‘The Hungarian Legislation on Hungarians Living in Neighbouring Countries’, in The Protection of National Minorities by their Kin-State, Venice Commission, Science and technique of democracy, No. 32, Council of Europe, Strasbourg

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Review of Nationalities
Przeglad Narodowosciowy
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Nationality Diversity of Bank Boards

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to carry out a comparative study for nationality diversity in bank boards. The study covers practices of board diversity of nine commercial banks. The data are compared for subsidiary banks in Bulgaria and their parent banks from the home country. The study defines a high degree of nationality diversity in subsidiary banks. The Bulgarian banks have a higher number of foreign members on boards compared to their parent banks. The good practices on board diversity in Bulgarian banks are a consequence of their subordination in European financial conglomerates and are aimed to reduce agent conflicts.

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Immigrant Experiences of Learning Icelandic and Connecting with the Speaking Community

Abstract

The Icelandic language has a central role in defining Icelandic nationality. Given its importance in defining Icelandic nationality and as a precondition for citizenship, the article studies what learning the Icelandic language means for the growing numbers of immigrants who have arrived in Iceland in recent years. This ethnographic study presents immigrants’ perspectives on learning the language to be able to participate at work as well as gain access to the language community and Icelandic society in order to examine theory-based questions regarding processes of inclusion, exclusion and integration. Our study shows that although language is promoted as an important aspect in inclusion into Icelandic society, many of our participants who have attended classes but work mostly with other immigrants experience the language requirements instead as a boundary marker in terms of participation and belonging in Icelandic society.

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From Double Iron to Double Deca Iron Ultra-Triathlon - A Retrospective Data Analysis from 1985 to 2011

From Double Iron to Double Deca Iron Ultra-Triathlon - A Retrospective Data Analysis from 1985 to 2011

Participation in ultra-endurance performance is of increasing popularity. We analyzed the historic development of the ultra-triathlon scene from 1985 to 2011 focusing on a) worldwide distribution of competition, b) participation, c) gender, and d) athlete nationality. We examined the participation trends of 3,579 athletes, involving 3,297 men (92.1%) and 300 women (7.9%), using linear regression analyses. Between 1985 and 2011, a total of 96 Double Iron ultra-triathlons (7.6km swimming, 360km cycling, and 84.4km running), 51 Triple Iron ultra-triathlons (11.6km swimming, 540km cycling, and 126.6km running), five Quadruple Iron ultra-triathlons (15.2km swimming, 720km cycling, and 168.8km running), five Quintuple Iron ultra-triathlons (19km swimming, 900km cycling, and 211km running), 11 Deca Iron ultra-triathlons (38km swimming, 1,800km cycling, and 422km running), and two Double Deca Iron ultra-triathlons (76km swimming, 3,600km cycling, and 844km running) were held. In total, 56.7% of the races were in Europe, 37.4% in North America, 5.3% in South America, and less than 1% in Asia. Europeans comprised 80% of the athletes. The number of male participants in Double (r2 = .56; P < .001) and Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (r2 = .47; P < .001) and the number of female participants in Double Iron ultra-triathlon (r2 = .66; P < .001) increased significantly. Less than 8% of the athletes total participated in an ultra-triathlon longer than a Triple Iron ultra-triathlon. Europeans won by far the most competitions in every distance. In conclusion, ultra-triathlon popularity is mainly limited to a) European and North American men and b) Double and Triple Iron ultra-triathlons. Future studies need to investigate the motivation of these ultra-endurance athletes to compete in these extreme races.

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The Jewish symbols

References Bardski K , W kręgu symboli biblijnych, Kraków 2010 De Vries Mzn S P , Obrzędy i symbole Żydów, Kraków 1999 Descombes L , Rozterki tożsamości, Warszawa 2013 Dudra S , Łemkowskie „stawanie się narodem”, „Przegląd Narodowościowy - Review of Nationalities”, No 2, 2013 Flawiusz J , Wojna żydowska, Warszawa 1991 http://wwwkingjamesbibleonlineorg [access: 29 03 2015] http://wwwtimesofisraelcom/hebrew-profs-weigh-in-on-important-12th

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Trapped within the law. Will the Kurdish Jews return to their homeland?

Violations of Iraqi Jews , “Fordham International Law Journal” 2002 No. 26(3), p. 656. Can Israelis from Iraq recover their citizenship ? http://jewishrefugees.blogspot.com/2010/10/can-israelis-of-iraqi-origin-recover.html [access on: 11.01.2018]. Dougherty B.K. Ghareeb E.A., Historical Dictionary of Iraq , Scarecrow Press 2013. Ghazaleh D.A., Iraqi Kurdistan works to attract foreign investors , https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ru/business/2014/01/iraq-kurdistan-region-foreign-investment.html [access on: 16.01. 2018]. Iraqi Nationality Law

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Differences in the Value Orientation of Czech and Slovak Pupils

Abstract

This contribution brings a selection from the results of a research carried out during the years 2013 and 2014 among Czech and Slovak pupils of middle school age (i.e. 4th to 6th forms of primary schools). This study focused on monitoring and evaluating the differences and similarities in the value-oriented responses of pupils, according to the criteria of their nationality and sex. The pupils were expressing their opinions by means of a questionnaire survey with respect to selected situations on a four-degree scale and they further stated their vision of the world and their position in it. This contribution analyses statistically significant deviations which were found out among the positions held by Czech and Slovak boys and girls. The contribution also gives rise to a number of questions concerning the shift in values among the population of pupils of the formerly unified state.

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