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Introduction Since the Russian annexation of 1812, identity politics has been the long-term subject of interest and dispute for a relatively large part of the population as well as the politically relevant inhabitants and state structures of Romania, Moldova, and Russia. This is true for the period before World War I, the interwar period, during World War II, and after it. It intensified in form after the country gained political independence, connected to the disintegration of the Russian–Soviet imperial realm. Russian efforts to create new national identities

REFERENCES 1. Bhawuk DPS, Brislin RW. Cross-cultural Training: A Review. Appl Psychol Int Rev. 2000;49:162-91. 2. Erikson E. Identity, youth and crisis. New York; Norton: 1968. 3. Marsia J. Identity in adolescent. In: J. Adelson. Handbook of adosescent psychology. New York: Wiley; 1985. p. 157-80. 4. Piontkovska DV. The problem of contrast between the concepts of „National Identity” and „Ethnic Identity” in psychological science. Eur J Appl Sci. 2014;1:91-3. 5. Soldatova GY. Psychology of Interethnic Tension. Moscow: Smysl; 1998. 6. Spivak LN. Psychological

References Al-Shumaimeri, Y. (2005). Gender Differences in Reading Comprehension Performance in Relation to Content Familiarity of Gender-Neutral Texts. Paper presented at the Language, Culture and Literature: An Integrated Schema. Faculty of Alsun. Minia University. Egypt. Apostolou, M. (2015). The Athlete and the Spectator Inside the Man: A Cross- Cultural Investigation of the Evolutionary Origins of Athletic Behavior. Cross-Cultural Research, 49(2), 151-173. doi: 10.1177/1069397114536516 Bellamy, A. J. (2003). The Formation of Croatian National Identity: A

ACTA MARISIENSIS. SERIA HISTORIA Vol. 1 (2019) ISSN (Print) 2668-9545 ISSN (Online) 2668-9715 CONSIDERAȚII DE NATURĂ ISTORICĂ PRIVIND NAȘTEREA IDENTITĂȚII NAȚIONALE CUBANEZE DOI: 10.2478/amsh-2020-0007 Adrian Scheianu PhD Candidate, “George Emil Palade” University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Târgu Mureș, Romania, acta.historia@umfst.ro Abstract Historical Considerations Regarding the Creation of the Cuban National Identity Although the revolutionary outbreak of the Spanish colonies in the Americas was

or ethnic aspects. However, religion’s (Islam) supranationalism leaves out a significant number of religious minorities in the established national identity of an Islamic Republic. Although Pakistan is a majority Muslim country with 96% Muslims, it has 3.54% of religious minorities, including Christians, Hindus, Ahmadiyyas, Parsis, Buddhists, Sikhs and others ( Rais 2004 , 457). It is difficult to provide exact official data because the last national census was done in 1998. As per the present day’s estimated population of 200 million ( Karim 2016 ), the population

Post-Soviet Belarus: The Transformation of National Identity

The paper deals with the formation of a new national identity in Belarus under conditions of post-Soviet transformation. Under the term of "national identity" the author means the identity of the population of the Republic of Belarus that will be adequate to its status of a newly independent state acquired after 1991. Special attention is paid to the existing major research approaches to the problem of constructing this national identity. According to the author's view, both major approaches are inadequate; the author puts forward a new (third) approach that goes beyond discussions on language and national culture, and corresponds to the concept of plurality of identities. The author describes some paradoxes of national identity based on the opposition of "nation" and "people". These correspond to the Western model of the "creation of modern nations", which is not fully applicable to post-Soviet Belarus. All attempts to apply this model to contemporary Belarus lead scholars to several "cultural paradoxes" that can, however, be explained within a new approach.

Abstract

Based on fieldwork among Kurds in Norway, this article explores how participants described the presence of female genital cutting (FGC) in Kurdistan as a difficult topic to address in public. Perceptions of how FGC should be addressed ranged from acknowledging and directly confronting it to silencing and rejecting it as a Kurdish practice. The participants associated FGC with a “traditional mindset” and perceptions of female sexuality that did not readily fit into new ideologies of women’s liberation. Based on literature on how to manage a “difficult” characteristic in national identity construction, we argue that the participants’ negotiation of “modern” and “traditional” aspects of national identity is one strategy for dealing with FGC. FGC has the potential for spoiled national identity. However, we find reason to suggest that a condemnation of the practice based on women’s liberation may strengthen the aspects of Kurdish national aspirations that are grounded in human rights and gender equality.

The Role of EU Law and Christian Values in Preserving National Identity in the Context of Globalisation

The aim of this article is to analyse how in the globalisation process small nations appear in danger of disappearing. Can law protect national identity when the state is in the European Union?

Globalisation together with the economic interests of states touches other spheres of society: national internal policy, education, mass media, the policy of family, migration. The birth rate in families in such big nations as Germany, France, and Italy is small. If numerous Italians, French, Polish, and Russians are worried about the constantly decreasing number of their inhabitants, no doubt that small nations are in danger of assimilation.

The European Union is an unprecedented formation of law: states retain their independence and at the same time people by their free will limit the sovereignty of a state. The 57th Article of the EU Constitution clearly states that "the Law of the Union is higher than the national [law]." It is as if the European States are united in the form of a federation, though the concept of a federation state cannot be applied strictly. The first condition for each new candidate state is to be a democratic and law-based state. The law-based state means legal elections, authorities elected by the people, separation of three state functions (legislative, executive and judicial), respect for human rights, protection of the rights of national and religious minorities. Good relations with neighbours are always appreciated. The new EU constitution contains 400 pages. The Constitutional Agreement or EU Constitution was approved by the Council of the European Union in June of 2004. Each state ratifies the Agreement. Some EU countries plan the referendums. The Parliament of Lithuania refused the referendum. It was planned that the Agreement will come into force in 2009. The Constitution of the EU requires that the National Governments of Member States will not interfere in implementing the aims of the Union. The 58th Article deals with loyalty to the Union. The institutions established by the EU work with human points of view and have a society model which is supported by the majority of the citizens.

In this article an attempt will also be made to evaluate the role of Christianity and its values for the legal system of the EU as well as for preserving national identity.

Narrative and Identity. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, Edmonton, Toronto. KOROSTELINA, Karina. 2013. Mapping National Identity Narratives in Ukraine. Nationalities Papers: the Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity 41(2): 293–315. KRZEMINSKI, Adam. 2015. Emanzipation und selbstbehauptung. Die ukrainische Frage, der Westen und Russland. Osteuropa 65(3): 3–23. LUCHTERHANDT, Otto. 2014. Die Krim-Krise von 2014, Staats- und volkerrechtliche Aspekte. Osteuropa 64(5–6): 61–86. MAGOCSI, Paul. 1996. A History of Ukraine. University of Toronto Press, Toronto

Abstract

The paper deals with the role of the landscape in the shaping of the national identity in the final stage of the formation of the Czech modern nation. The topic is treated through the perspective of two pairs of Bohemian landscape features (Říp and Blaník Mountains, and the rivers Vltava and Elbe), both rich in symbolism. This concept was further highlighted by the travelling panel exhibition Story of Landscape at the Nation’s Service, which was held in the Lapidarium of the National Museum in the autumn of 2018. The present text is based on the research of literature and period sources (collection items) located in the National Museum Library and in the Historical Museum of the National Museum. The author presents the landscape as an important national symbol which has assumed this function through its relation to stories based on national history. The landscape is perceived here not only as a real (physical) environment, as a scene where a wide range of national and later tourist activities took place, but also as a symbolic space closely connected to the ideas of individuals within the national society.