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Reality in Angela Carter’s magical realist novels is depicted through the deployment of numerous picturesque details that correspond to the readers’ experiential reality, differentiating such a world from non-realist forms. Though the magical realist fictional world is akin to the one outside of the fictional reality, the mode’s strategy still differs from that of traditional realism due to the absence of a purely mimetic role. Initially serving to establish what Roland Barthes termed l’effet de reel (the effect of reality), the city in Carter’s novels is indeed constructed according to the principles of magical realism and creates plausible links between textual and extratextual realities. Further inclusion of magical, uncanny elements into such a world, in one respect, leads to the creation of excentric spaces that promote the position of the marginalized Other and allow alternative outlooks on life to gain prominence. A hybrid reality that is the ultimate result of the coexistence of the normal and the uncanny leads to the subversion of what Carter saw as patriarchal stereotypes, primarily due to the fact that it problematizes and ultimately negates their very foundation. In other words, if we cannot agree on the criteria for what is real, how can we trust the ultimate authority of any other criteria? The city in Carter’s novels thus acts as a suitable literary venue for revealing the author’s ideological position.


The purpose of the article is – firstly – to get an answer to the question of what image of Polish patriotism is offered by the Internet fake, like and hate, and secondly – to reflect on its causes and consequences for the Polish community. The text presents the results of the author’s own research with comments and conclusions. The presented research relied, in turn, on the content analysis of the memory narratives constructed by users of Polish patriotic accounts functioning on Facebook. More importantly, the analyses focused on both formal issues (the number of sites and their popularity), as well as substantive ones (issues discussed within a given website, threads raised and users’ opinions).

.Co., pp. 357-376. Meadows, M.S. (2003) Pause & Effect: The Art of Interactive Narrative. Indianapolis, IN: New Riders. Nichols, B. (1994) Blurred Boundaries. Questions of Meaning in Contemporary Culture . Indiana University Press. Bloomington and Indianapolis. Nohrstedt, S.A. & Ottosen, R. (ed.) (2001) Journalism and the New World Order. Gulf War, National News Discourses and Globalization. Göteborg: Nordicom. Norwegian Radio P4: 16.07.2006. NTB (Norwegian News Agency). 19.02.2006. Robertson, A. (2001) ‘Us, Them and Television News Narratives; Constructing Europe

narratively constructed in academic writing. As such, the method somewhat backgrounds the possibility of a multiplicity of voices in the narration of user-and-interface cultures that other more person- and identity-focused methods might produce. Ethically, applying the walkthrough method to the study of apps requires the researcher to pay particular attention to the ways in which he or she becomes visible to other users, how such a presence might be perceived, how such a presence might negatively affect the users’ sense of pleasure and safety and what kinds of risks the

someone who has a “well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.” See the UNHCR text of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, , accessed January 7, 2019. As Alexander Betts and Paul Collier argue, this definition goes back to a US American narrative constructed in the early 1950s, at the height of the Cold War, and tailored to the situation of would-be defectors behind the Iron Curtain. Betts, Alexander and Paul Collier