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Copper oxide and cobalt oxide (Co3O4, CuO) nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully prepared using microwave irradiation. The obtained powders of the nanocrystals (NCs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained results confirm the presence of both nanooxides which have been produced during chemical precipitation using microwave irradiation. TEM micrographs have shown that the obtained nanocrystals are characterized by high dispersion and narrow size distribution. The results of X-ray diffraction confirmed those obtained from the transmission electron microscope. Optical absorption analysis indicated the direct band gap for both kinds of the nanocrystals.
Solid solutions of Co1−xZnxFe2O4 and Ni1−xZnxFe2O4 (0 < x < 1) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel self-propagating combustion method. The obtained single cubic phase product has a specific surface area 25 m2∙g−1 to 33 m2∙g−1 and crystallite size 25 nm to 40 nm. Lattice parameters change linearly from 8.371 A (CoFe2O4) and 8.337 A (NiFe2O4) to 8.431 A (ZnFe2O4). The saturation magnetization (Ms) changes non-linearly from 60.8 emu∙g−1 (CoFe2O4), respectively, from 35.6 emu∙g−1 (NiFe2O4) to 3.3 emu∙g−1 (ZnFe2O4) reaching maximal value 76.1 emu∙g−1 for Co0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 and 64.9 emu∙g−1 – for Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4.
Anu Dhupar, Suresh Kumar, Vandana Sharma and J.K. Sharma
In the present work, mixed structure Zn(S,O) nanoparticles have been synthesized using solution based chemical coprecipitation technique. Two different zinc sources (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O and ZnSO4·7H2O) and one sulfur source (CSNH2NH2) have been used as primary chemical precursors for the synthesis of the nanoparticles in the presence and absence of a capping agent (EDTA). The structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties of the nanoparticles have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transmission infra-red (FT-IR) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD revealed the formation of mixed phases of c-ZnS, h-ZnS and h-ZnO in the synthesized nanoparticles. The surface morphology was analyzed from SEM micrographs which showed noticeable changes due to the effect of EDTA. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of zinc, sulfur and oxygen in Zn(S,O) nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra identified the presence of characteristic absorption peaks of ZnS and ZnO along with other functional group elements. The optical band gap values were found to vary from 4.16 eV to 4.40 eV for Zn(S,O) nanoparticles which are higher in comparison to the band gap values of bulk ZnS and ZnO. These higher band gap values may be attributed to the mixed structure of Zn(S,O) nanoparticles.
Lazar Kopanja, Boris Lončar, Dragiša Žunić and Marin Tadić
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Inga Zinicovscaia, Liudmila Rudi, Ana Valuta, Liliana Cepoi, Konstantin Vergel, Marina V. Frontasyeva, Alexey Safonov, Markus Wells and Dmitrii Grozdov
The cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia was used to study the biotechnology of selenium nanoparticles synthesis for the first time. The experimental conditions of the nanoparticle production by the studied cyanobacteria in aqueous cobalt selenite solutions were examined. Neutron activation analysis allowed characterization of the dynamics of accumulation of the total selenium quantity by Nostoc linckia. Scanning Electron Microscope images demonstrated extracellular formation of amorphous nanoparticles. Released selenium nanoparticles ranged in size from 10 to 80 nm. The changes of essential parameters of biomass (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and phycobilin) content during the nanoparticle formation were assessed. During the first 24 h of nanoparticle synthesis, a slight decline of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates content in the biomass was observed. The most extensive was the process of phycobilin degradation. Furthermore, all biochemical component content as well as an antioxidant activity of the biomass extracts significantly decreased. The obtained substance of Nostoc biomass with selenium nanoparticles may be used for medical, pharmaceutical and technological purposes.
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 M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold Nanoparticles: Assembly, Supramolecular Chemistry, Quantum-Size-Related Properties, and Applications toward Biology, Catalysis and Nanotechnology
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