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References [1] GUBIN, S. P. 2009. Magnetic Nanoparticles . WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, 2009. ISBN 978-3-527-40790-3 [2] HPCHELLA, M. et al. 2019. No. 6434 Natural, incidental, and engineered nanomaterials and their impacts on the Earth system , Science (80-.)., 363 , 1-10. ISSN 1095-9203 [3] JEEVANANDAM, et al. 2018. Review on nanoparticles and nanostructured materials : history, sources, toxicity and regulations. Beilstein J. Nanotechnol ., 9 , 1050–1074. ISSN 21904286 [4] DIBENEDETTO, A., FASCIANO, S.,COLUCCI, A. 2013. Nanosized particles : questioned

’Alessandro, F. Ubertini, S. Laflamme, A. L. Materazzi, “Towards smart concrete for smart cities: Recent results and future application of strain-sensing nanocomposites”, Journal of Smart Cities, 1: 1-14, 2015. 6. H. Li, J. Ou, H. Xiao, X. Guan, B. Han, “Nanomaterials-enabled multifunctional concrete and structures”, in: Nanotechnology in Civil Infrastructure, Springer, Berlin, 2011. 7. P. Łukowski, “Continuity threshold of the polymer phase in polymer-cement composites”, Archives of Civil Engineering, 3: 559-571, 2008. 8. J. A. Hoheneder, “Smart Carbon Nanotube/fiber and PVA

. October 29. 2010. http://www.warsawvoice.pl . date of download: (2012). 44. Majda B., Bowil Biotech, www.biotechnologia.pl . date of download: (2012). 45. Bielecki S., Kalinowska H.: Biotechnology nanomaterials. Post. Mikrobiologii, 47 (2008) 163-169. 46. Dinand E., Chanzy H., Vignon M. R.: Parenchymal cell cellulose from sugar beet pulp: preparation and properties. Cellulose. 3 (1996) 183-188. 47. Bijak M.: Sztuczna zastawka serca, www.echirurgia.pl . date of download: (2016). 48. Avery N. C., Sims T. J., Warkup C., Bailey A. J.: Collagen cross-linking in porcine m

, 31, pp. 9023–9030. Becker, H., Herzberg, F., Schulte, A. & Kolossa-Gehringa, M. (2011). The carcinogenic potential of nanomaterials, their release from products and options for regulating them, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 214, pp. 231–238. Ben-Moshe, T., Dror, I. & Berkowitz, B. (2010). Transport of metal oxide nanoparticles in saturated porous media, Chemosphere, 81, pp. 387–393. Benn, T.M. & Wasterhoff, P. (2008). Nanoparticle Silver Released into water from commercially available sock fabrics, Environmental Science and

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and Restriction of Chemicals and establishing a European Chemicals Agency). PRÁŠEK, Jan (2011). Uhlíkové nanočástice: GRAFEN, NANOTRUBICE, FULLERENY [online]. Brno, 2011 [cit. 2012-01-28]. Available at: http://www.umel.feec.vutbr.cz/nanoteam/data/soubory/CTN,%20grafen,%20 fullerenCNTs+grafen+fullereny.pdf. Instruction and study materials. (in Czech) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee. Regulatory aspects of Nanomaterials. Brussels, 17.6.2008, 11 p. Available at: http

(2017) Antimicrobial activity of graphene and its viability. Degree final project. University of Barcelona pp 34. Gkika DA, Magafas L, Cool P, Braet J (2018) Toxicology 393: 83. Gopalakrishnan I, Sugaraj Samuel R, Sridharan K (2018) Nanomaterials-Based Adsorbents for Water and Wastewater Treatments. In: Sridharan K (ed) Emerging Trends of Nanotechnology in Environment and Sustainability: A Review-Based Approach. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 89. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-71327-4_11. Guo X, Mei N (2014) J Food and Drug Anal 22: 105. Hao J, Yang W, Zhang Z

, expanding the substitution range from 0.1 up to 0.5. We studied how the degree of substitution affects the structural and magnetic properties of lithium manganese spinels. 2 Experimental The spinel structured lithium manganese oxide nanomaterials: LiMn 2–x M x O 4 , where M = Ni, Fe and 0.1 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.5 (corresponding to nominal Mn:Fe or Mn:Ni composition ratios of 1.9:0.1, 1.8:0.2, 1.7:0.3, 1.6:0.4 and 1.5:0.5, respectively) were synthesized by a simple, low cost, modified sol-gel method [ 5 , 6 , 42 – 45 ]. First, stoichiometric amounts of metal precursors: manganese

.: Applications of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in nanotechnology and nanoscience. Rom. J. Phys., 49, 9-10 (2004) 955-965. http://www.imec.be/wwwinter/mediacenter/en/SR2006/681619.html http://www.ndhu.edu.tw/~nano/file/chem31300/NT06-L2-Mar07-Nanomaterials.pdf http://www.ntrc.itri.org.tw/research/pdf-2004/08-3.pdf Serbiński W., Zieliński A., Wierzchoń T.: Laser assisted forming of the surface layer of Al-Si alloy at cryogenic conditions. Inż. Mater. 25 (2004) 656-658. Eliaz N., Eliezer D., Olson D. L.: Hydrogen-assisted processing of materials. Mater. Sci. Eng. A289 (2000

Abstract

Superior electrical properties of carbon nanotubes were utilized by the authors in the fabrication of printed resistors. In common applications such as electrodes or sensors, only basic electrical and mechanical properties are investigated, leaving aside other key parameters related to the stability and reliability of particular elements. In this paper we present experimental results on the properties of printed resistive layers. One of the most important issues is their stability under high currents creating excessive thermal stresses. In order to investigate such behavior, a high direct current stress test was performed along with the observation of temperature distribution that allowed us to gain a fundamental insight into the electrical behavior at such operating conditions. These experiments allowed us to observe parametric failure or catastrophic damage that occurred under excessive supply parameters. Electrical parameters of all investigated samples remained stable after applying currents inducing an increase in temperature up to 130 °C and 200 °C. For selected samples, catastrophic failure was observed at the current values inducing temperature above 220 °C and 300 °C but in all cases the failure was related to the damage of PET or alumina substrate. Additional experiments were carried out with short high voltage pulse stresses. Printed resistors filled with nanomaterials sustained similar voltage levels (up to 750 V) without changing their parameters, while commonly used graphite filled polymer resistors changed their resistance value.