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Rohlf, F. J. 2010. tpsDig soft ware, ver. 2.16 . Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.
Romaniuk, A. 2018. Shape variation of Palearctic mustelids (Carnivora: Mustelidae) mandible is affected both by evolutionary history and ecological preference. Hystrix , in press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-00051-2018 .
Weijs, W. A. 1994. Evolutionary
Parasitol. Lituan ., 12: 33 – 40 (In Russian)
K ontrimavičius , V.L. (1969): Helminths of mustelids and trends in their evolution . Moscow, Russia, Nauka, 432 pp. (In Russian)
K orol , E.N., V arodi , E.I., K ornyushin , V.V., M alega , A.M. (2016): Helminths of wild predatory mammals (Mammalia, Carnivore) of Ukraine. Trematodes. Vestn. Zool ., 50(4): 301 – 308. DOI: 10.1515/vzoo-2016-0037
K ostadinova , A., G ibson , D.I. (2002): Isthmiophora Lühe, 1909 and Euparyphium Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) re-defined, with comments on their
E. I. Varodi, A. M. Malega, Y. I. Kuzmin and V. V. Kornyushin
Abelentsev, V. I. 1968. Fauna of Ukraine. Mustelids. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv, 1-280 [In Ukrainian].
Akimov, I. A., Didyk J. M. 2009. Using of morphological characters of Trichinella capsules (Nematoda, Trichinellidae) for species identifi cation. Vestnik Zoologii, suppl. 29, 12-16.
Anderson, R. C. 2000. Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates: Th eir Development and Transmission. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, 1-672.
Andreiko, O. F. 1973. Animal Parasites in Moldova. Shtiintsa, Kishinev, 1
Nikolay Natchev, Zahari Petkov, Georgi Dashev, Ivanka Atanasova and Nesho Chipev
Within the scope of the present study a field survey in the area of “Strandzha” Natural Park in south-east Bulgaria was carried out. The main goal of the investigation was to gain more detailed information on the diet of the European otters (Lutra lutra) that inhabit the park. As indicators for the presence of the mustelids a set of standard procedures, such as footprints tracking and inspecting the terrain for otter spraints were used. A total of 204 excrements were found, measured, documented and then disintegrated in water. The food rests in the faeces were investigated and the diet of the local population was documented. On the base of the results we separated the excrements into six groups and analysed the relations between the contents of the spraints and the characteristics of the habitat where they were found. We discovered a clear tendency toward piscivory in the middle and down streams of the studied rivers in the Natural Park. In the upper streams, otters relied almost exclusively on invertebrates like bivalves and crayfish as food source. The fact, that even suboptimal habitats, which offered invariable menu, were exploited by the otters is an indication for the stability of the local population.
To study the effects domestic cats may have on surrounding wildlife, a complete list was made of 558 items caught in the garden or brought into the house by one cat over 17 years, from 1988 to 2005. The effect on prey populations was assessed by comparing their abundance with the previous 15 years’ population without a cat. On balance, this cat (Cat 1) was clearly beneficial to the native bird species by killing rodents and deterring mustelids. The diet of a second cat (Cat 2) was recorded in the same way from 2006 to 2016. This cat caught half the number of items 148:287, but in the same proportions: house mice (37.8:42.6); ship rats (12.8:12.1); European rabbits (all young) (8.1:6.7); weasels (0.7:0.4); dunnock (12.8:9.2); house sparrow (2.0:3.1); blackbird (2.7:2.5); song thrush (1.4:1.3); European greenfinch (0.7:5.8); chaffinch (0.7:3.3); silvereye (10.1:8.3); New Zealand fantail (2.0:1.0); lizards (8.1:1.7). Despite this, there were significant differences: Cat 2 avoided finches (2:28, P = 0.004), and took a few more lizards (12:5). For both cats, birds apparently formed about a third of their diet: 33.4% and 34.5%, but comparison of the proportion of birds and rodents brought into the house (12:92) and found dead away from the house (49:45) implies that 320 rodent kills may have been missed, being far more difficult to find. As top predators, these cats were clearly beneficial to native birds, and proposed control or elimination may precipitate mesopredator release and a rabbit problem.
млекопитающих Крыма и опыт оздоровления домашних животных от основных гельминтозов.
Kharchenko V. A., Kornyshin V. V., Varodi E. I., Malega M. O. Occurrence of Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda, Taeniidae) in red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) from Western Ukraine // Acta Parasitologica, 2008. — 53 , N 1. — P. 36-40.
Kontrimavichus V. L. Helminth fauna of the mustelids and ways of their forming. — Moscow : Nauka, 1969. — 432 p. — Russian : Контримавичус В. Л. Гельминтофауна куньих и пути ее формирова- ния
A. Cerbo, M. Manfredi, M. Bregoli, N. Milone and M. Cova
Two hundreds and sixty red foxes, eighteen badgers and eight stone martens from north-eastern Italy were examined for zoonotic parasites by SCT, with particular attention to Trichinella sp. and Echinococcus multilocularis. No adult worms of E. multilocularis were observed in the intestine of red foxes or mustelids. Out of 223 fox faecal samples analysed by a commercial CA-ELISA, 5.8 % was positive to Echinococcus coproantigens. Trichinella sp. was detected by digestion of muscle in 1.2 % of examined foxes (2/172), but not in mustelids (0/11). Toxocara canis, responsible for human toxocarosis, resulted to be common in fox population (48.5 %). This parasite was found both in young (53.3 % of cubs and 61.9 % of sub-adults) and in adult animals (42.7 %). Other zoonotic parasites as Uncinaria stenocephala (52.3 %) and Trichuris vulpis (0.4 %) were detected in fox populations.
Between 2010 and 2017, records of carnivores in the Tabuk Province were gathered using camera traps, live traps and direct observations. Altogether seven species of carnivores representing four families were recorded: two felines, Felis margarita and Panthera pardus nimr, a hyaenid, Hyaena hyaena, a mustelid, Mellivora capensis and three canids, Canis lupus, Vulpes cana and Vulpes vulpes. For each species, a list of localities is given and its current distribution is described. Unfortunately, many of the reported specimens were killed by hunters or local people. Major threats to carnivores in the Tabuk Province, such as killing and hanging, are discussed and potential solutions are suggested.
The trematode Troglotrema acutum and nematodes of the genus Skrjabingylus are parasitic helminths infecting nasal sinuses of mustelids. Despite different infection routes of these parasites, their occurrence becomes evident due to their destructive lesions of the bone structure of the head, which appears almost similar in both cases.
This is a report of coinfection of both the trematode and the nematode, in a polecat from Lower Austria, as well as the first attempt to barcode T. acutum. The nematode could only be found fragmen-tally, therefore accurate morphological determination was not possible. DNA barcoding was successful, however, a clear species assignment was not possible as the similarity with published COI sequences of other nematodes was only 87 % or less. The influence of both parasitic helminths on the health condition of the hosts remains elusive and has to be evaluated in separate studies.
E. N. Korol, E. I. Varodi, V. V. Kornyushin and A. M. Malega
Terrestrial Vertebrates. Kiev, 1-93 [In Russian].
Kadenatcii, A. I. 1957. The Helminth Fauna of Crimean Mammals and the Experience in Treatment of Domestic Animals from Basic Helminthoses. Omsk, 1-157 [In Russian].
Kontrimavichus, V. L. 1969. Helminth Fauna of Mustelids and Ways of its Formation. Nauka, Moscow, 1-432 [in Russian].
Korneev A. P., Koval V. P. 1958. Studies on the helminth fauna of fur-bearing animals of the Ukrainian SSR. Raboty po gelmintologii, posvyashhennye 80-letiyu K. I. Skryabina. Izdatel’stvo AN SSSR