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In this paper I attempt a brief analysis of the concept of ‘authenticity’ from musicological and philosophical perspectives. This term bears important metaphysical presuppositions. A good example is the complex meaning and the central role this term has in one of the most influential philosophy books in the 20th century: Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time. This term appears in a crucial point of the treatise: when man (Dasein) must turn his existence toward his intimate self in order to truthfully understand his own being. Notably, in this philosophical context, ‘authenticity’ refers to essential, hidden traits of one individual being in accordance with their way of thinking, feeling and overall behavior. When you are not authentic you submit yourself to impersonal existence. These connotations have common cultural roots with those within musicology, in the latter referring to contemporary debates concerning theoretical difficulties about the historical informed performance movement as held especially by the musicologist Richard Taruskin. In this case, ‘being in accordance’ would mean that certain characteristics considered essential to a musical work are satisfied by the interpretation of the work. The ontological problem concerns the manner in which we conceive the reference of the expression ‘musical work’ and the nature of musical experiences in general. The well-known aesthetician T.W. Adorno, following remarks by Walter Benjamin, criticized Heidegger’s treatment of the concept of ‘authenticity’ for the reason behind it is simply cultural presuppositions from that time, not metaphysical truths. I will argue that, philosophically, neither can fully sustain strong theses and instead propose ‘authenticity’ to mean ‘accordance’ between internal characteristics of a musical work and the interpreter’s personal, but at the same time informed, vision of the same work.


The article is an attempt to reconstruct the fundamental elements of Kazimierz Serocki’s musical language on the basis of his own statements concerning his music. Those statements come first and foremost from his lectures prepared for the Meisterkurs für Komposition at the Musik-Akademie in Basel (1976), whose manuscripts are now held in the Polish Composers’ Archive of the University of Warsaw Library. The lecture texts (Notations- und Realisationsprobleme, Klangfarben als Kompositionsmaterial, Chance der offenen Form) present a whole set of problems which Serocki considered as the most important for his method of composition. The central place among these problems is occupied by the idea of “composing with sound colour” (“mit Klangfarben komponieren”). Sound colour plays a decisive role in the creative process, as it constitutes self-sufficient material for composition. Sound colour has a form-shaping role in the musical work, since it can build sequences of sound structures in various configurations, which perform various functions in the piece. The idea of composing with sound colour is presented by the composer in the context of an adequate way of notating sound phenomena and the possibility of performing music from such notation. This idea was also related in the lectures to the principles of constructing polyvalent open forms (mehrdeutige Form) out of small- and large-scale components. Pitch organisation, on the other hand, remains of secondary interest in the composer’s commentaries. Serocki’s self-reflection provides us with original and innovative answers to the most important problems that contemporary composers have had to face in their work. It also provides significant and hitherto frequently little-known insights into the components of the unique style of the author of Pianophonie, and these insights can be effectively utilised in the course of future research on Serocki’s work.


Ordinary musicians are a relatively hard to find population. Based on the results of the research project Musicians’ LIVES carried out between 2012 and 2015, this article presents the working situation of performing musicians in French speaking Switzerland. We compare the social characteristics of the musicians with the active population. We then analyse musicians’ relationship to work and examine the composition of their income. Three main ways of being a musician in Western Switzerland are presented: the “craftsman,” the “teacher” and the “artist.”


Krzysztof Knittel’s text about his own composition techniques, also looking at such topics as: the influence of painting on his music (e.g. the works of Piet Mondrian and Paul Klee); truth in the musical work; the application of recycling ad re-use techniques to the form of the musical work; methods of constructing the sound of the composition; links between music and historical events; rollage - a technique borrowed from the painter Jiří Kolář for the needs of St. Matthew Passion; sound installations created by Knittel with sounds of nature and civilisation; Theodor Lipps’ theory of empathy (Einfuhlung), as well as intuitive and improvised music.


In the complex road of deciphering and understanding a musical work, an important step for the pianist (performer or professor) is represented by the choice of reference interpretations according to some famous musicians. Elisabeth Leonskaya and Paul Badura - Skoda are among the most distinguished representatives of the contemporary school of piano.


The choice of valuable interpretative versions is highly important for both pianists on their way to performance and teachers in their complex activity of piano training. These become real models of esthetical thinking and artistic inspiration in the approach of a musical work. We shall use Sonata in D minor D 958 by Franz Schubert as an interpretative analysis model in the view of the pianists Alfred Brendel and Murray Perahia.


Paweł Hendrich’s compositions can be compared to macrocrystals - solids composed of numerous small and identical elements, constructed in accordance with a strict pattern. Importantly, the same internal crystal structure can produce forms highly diversified with regard to external shape. Similarly, this composer’s works are very precisely structured already on the level of individual sounds, but this structure is only a tool for the creation of very clear musical macroforms. The idea of emergence - of new values resulting from the combination of simple elements - is of key importance to this composer.

The paper presents the principles of organising music material in the works of Paweł Hendrich. These are, among others: periodicity, multilayered structures, permutations and flexibility. These ideas are reflected in the musical work in many dimensions, both on the level of microand macro-structure. Their application exerts a major impact on the forms created by the composer.

With the development of his musical language, the composer transforms his initial material more and more radically. Simple elements and processes that underlie the construction of his works become progressively more and more difficult to reconstruct, largely due to the application of a computer in the composition process. A comprehensive look at Paweł Hendrich’s entire output of compositions proves that his work is emergent as a whole. With each new piece, a new element is added, but all of them form a coherent system. No wonder, then, that one of the composer’s works bears the telling title of Emergon.


The Romanian Orthodox Church in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century had a valuable generation of hierarchs protopsalts, composers, translators and promoters of the psaltic music of the Byzantine tradition. From this exceptional generation, Iosif Naniescu is the most valuable composer and interpreter of the 19th century psaltic music. By his rich musical work, Metropolitan Iosif stands out as a reference point for the composition and translation of Greek psaltic chanting. Thanks to the original compositions and translations from the old music notation system, Iosif Naniescu may be included among the promoters of the Christian music notation system in our country alongside Macarie the Monk (with whom he would collaborate), Anton Pann (with whom he bound a close friendship between 1839-1854), and Dimitrie Suceveanu (whom he promoted as a protopsalter of Moldavia). The quality of his performance is highlighted by the countless written testimonies over time. Iosif Naniescu shows a special talent and zeal in his widespread work of over 100 musical manuscripts (stored in our country and in the Holy Mountain of Athos); he is also acknowledged for the Psalms of Time, which he copied in anthologies besides his own chants. Therefore, the present article comes to assert the origins of his chants and pays tribute to classical music of Byzantine tradition.


This article is a contribution to scientific research on this aspect of Krystyna Moszumańska-Nazar’s musical output which concerns the connections between her music and other arts, primarily literature and the visual arts, as well as inspirations flowing from nature, religion, philosophy, and broadly understood culture. The article applies structuralist methodology. The starting point for the analysis of the phenomena in question is the musical work itself, its title and its structure, and in the case of vocal-instrumental works - the content and message of the literary text and the person of its author. In the part of the article which deals with the biography and artistic personality of Krystyna Moszumańska-Nazar, as well as by quoting the composer’s own statements in the text, I draw on the personalistic method, especially highly valued in 20th-century philosophy; this method emphasises the role of the human person and personality in analytic work.

In the musicological literature to date there exists no separate, large-scale study dedicated to the subject of non-musical inspirations in the works of Krystyna Moszumańska-Nazar. This topic has been tackled, however, in scientific dissertations dealing with various aspects of the composer’s work. For example, inspirations from the sphere of the sacrum have been indicated by Marek Stefański (2011), whereas Ewa Mizerska-Golonek (1992) writes about inspirations derived from the Biblical text in Krystyna Moszumańska-Nazar’s Song of Songs, and Hanna Kostrzewska (2012) discusses painting as a source of inspiration in the composer’s oeuvre. The main source of information on this subject, however, are the composer’s own statements: her ‘Autorefleksja kompozytorska’ [‘The Composer’s Self-Commentary’]1 and interviews.2



K. Moszumańska-Nazar, ‘Autorefleksja kompozytorska’ [‘The Composer’s Self-Commentary’], in K. Kasperek, Krystyna Moszumańska-Nazar. Katalog tematyczny utworów, Cracow, Academy of Music, 2004, pp. 149–153.


M. Woźna-Stankiewicz, Lwowskie geny osobowości twórczej. Rozmowy z Krystyną Moszumańską-Nazar [The Lviv Gene of Artistic Personality: Interviews with Krystyna Moszumańska-Nazar], Cracow, Musica Iagellonica, 2007; M. Janicka-Słysz, ‘Z walcem w tle’ [‘With Waltz in the Background’], interview with Krystyna Moszumańska-Nazar, Ruch Muzyczny, no. 18, 2004, pp. 8–9.

. 1991. What a Musical Work Is, Again. in Music, Art, and Metaphysics , Cornell University Press, pp.215-263. LEVINSON, J. 1980. What a Musical Work Is. Journal of Philosophy 77(1):5-28. MARGOLIS, J. 1980. Art and philosophy . Humanities Press, New Jersey. MERRICKS, T. 2001. Objects and Persons . Clarendon Press, Oxford. ROHRBAUGH, G. 2003. Artworks as historical individuals. European Journal of Philosophy 11(2):177–205. WOLTERSTORFF, N. 1975. Toward an Ontology of Art Works. Noûs 9:115-142.