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., 2008. Utilization of sewage sludge in EU application of old and new methods – a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12(1): 116–140. Gondek K., 2012. Effect of fertilization with farmyard manure, municipal sewage sludge and compost from biodegradable waste on yield and mineral composition of spring wheat grain. Journal of Elementology 2: 231–245. Jasiewicz C., Antonkiewicz J., Baran A., 2006. Influence of organic fertilizers on heavy metal content in tall oat grass. Ecological Chemistry and Engineering A, 13(9): 915–923. Jones J.B., Case V.W., 1990. Soil

-0022. [15] Regulation of the Minister of the Environment on municipal sewage sludge dated 6 February 2015. J Laws of Poland, Item 257; 2015. http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20150000257 . [16] Grobelak A, Grosser A, Kacprzak M, Kamizela T. J Environ Manage. 2019:234:90-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.12.111. [17] Kicińska A, Gucwa J, Kosa-Burda B. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2019;102(3):399-406. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-018-2517-z. [18] Deeks LK, Chaney K, Murray C, Sakrabani R, Gedara S, Le MS, et al. Agron Sustain Dev. 2013;33:539-549. DOI: 10.1007/s13593

References Kabata-Pendias, A. & Pendias H. (1999). Biotechnology trace elements. PWN Warszawa ss.400 (in Polish). Krzywy, E., Wołoszyk, Cz. & Iżewska, A. (2000). Fertilizer value municipal sewage sludge. Oddział Szczeciński PTIE: 5-58 (in Polish). Krzywy, E., Wołoszyk, Cz. & Iżewska, A. (2002). Agricultural Production and use of compost from sewage sludge with the addition of various components. Oddział Szczeciński PTIE ss. 39 (in Polish). Oleszkiewicz, J. A. (1998). Economy sludge. Guide decision maker LEM sc. Kraków. ss. 28 4(in Polish). Ostrowska, A

References 1. Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Ochrona Środowiska 2015 . (2015) 2. Falacinski, P., Szarek, Ł., Possible applications of hardening slurries with fly ash from thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge in environmental protection structures . Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics. 63(1), pp. 47-61, (2016) 3. Szarek, Ł., Wojtkowska, M. Properties of fly ash from thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge in terms of EN 450-1 . Archives of Environmental Protection, Vol. 44 no. 1 pp. 62–68 (2018). 4. Łukawska, M., Speciation

reclamation model consisting of hard coal ash and municipal sewage sludge. Part 1. The content of primary plant nutrients. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol. 499: 315-323 [in Polish]. Maćkowiak, C. (2001). The manurial value of sewage sludge. Inż. Ekol. 3, 135-145 [in Polish]. Czekała, J. (2002). The humus-forming value and the manurial effect of sewage sludge. Folia Univ. Agric. Stetin. Ser. Agriculturae 211(84), 75-80 [in Polish]. Czekała, J. (2008). Chemical properties of the compost produced from sewage sludge and different bio-wastes]. Journal of Research and

Abstract

According to data of the Central Statistical Office, the amount of sludge produced in municipal wastewater treatment plants in 2010 amounted to 526000 Mg d.m. The forecast of municipal sewage sludge amount in 2015 according to KPGO2014 will reach 642400 Mg d.m. and is expected to increase in subsequent years. Significant amounts of sludge will create problems due to its utilization. In order to solve this problem the use of thermal methods for sludge utilization is expected. According to the National Waste Management Plan nearly 30% of sewage sludge mass should be thermally utilized by 2022. The article presents the results of co-combustion of coal and municipal sewage sludge in a bubbling fluidized bed boiler made by SEFAKO and located in the Municipal Heating Company in Morag. Four tests of hard coal and sewage sludge co-combustion have been conducted. Boiler performance, emissions and ash quality were investigated.

The influence of the composts with the participation of municipal sewage sludge on the available forms of phosphorus in the soil as well as the yield of the seeds of spring rape

The field and laboratory experiment was carried on the brown incomplete soil of the complex of rye good. The obtained results in the yield experiment show that the composts with the participation of municipal sewage sludge increased essentially the yield of the seeds of spring rape in comparison with the control variant. Doubling of the doses of mineral nitric - potassium fertilization against the background of the composts did not have a significant influence on increasing the yield of the seeds of spring rape in comparison with the single doses. The composts with the participation of municipal sewage sludge in the field and laboratory experiment caused a significant increase of the content of the available forms of phosphorus in the soil. As time went by the distribution of the composts in the soil, the content of the available forms of phosphorus increased.

The effect of composts from potato pulp and municipal sewage sludge for changes of microelements in the soil during incubation

The total and soluble content of microelements in the soil was described in the laboratory experiment. The soil was incubated with three doses of composts with a participation of municipal sewage sludge and potato pulp. The obtained results of the experiment pointed that all the composts increased an average total content and the forms soluble in 1 M HCl of microelements in the soil in comparison with the control. In the majority of the variants, the composts made with the 70% participation of municipal sewage sludge and 30% addition of straw or sawdust caused an increase of the content of the analyzed elements in the soil than the composts with the 70% participation of potato pulp and 30% addition of straw or sawdust. The differences are connected with a higher content of microelements, which were put in the soil, with the composts with the 70% participation of municipal sewage sludge and 30% addition of straw or sawdust. There are no differences in the formation of the content of microelements in the soil, which were depended on the type of the structural - formative component during the production of composts. The quantity of the composts' dose had an influence on the formation of the participation of the soluble form of microelements in the total content in the soil. The participation of the soluble form of cadmium, cooper, manganese and nickel in the total content in the soil increased along with increasing the dose of composts. The content of the total forms in the soil incubated with the composts included in the standard for the light soils.

An impact of municipal sewage sludge and wheaten straw on some indicators of soil fertility

In a two-factor pot experiment the impact of applied diverse doses of municipal sewage sludge and equal dose of wheaten straw, with and without supplemental mineral N and NPK fertilization, on some fertility properties of soil was assessed. The soil used in the experiment was acid brown incomplete soil (good rye complex). The grass — Festulolium — was the test plant, harvested four times and in the second year — common sunflower and blue phacelia. After the harvest of phacelia, the pH (in 1 M KCl), the content of total nitrogen, total carbon and the available forms of P, K and Mg were analyzed.

Fertilization with sewage sludge and straw failed to have a significant influence on the change of the soil pH. However, all doses of sewage sludge + straw, in comparison with the control, significantly increased the content of total carbon (from 31.8 to 37.8%) and total nitrogen (from 34.3 to 52.2%) in the soil. There was significantly more phosphorus available in the soil from all the objects with sewage sludge and straw than in the soil from the control object (from 8.2 to 21.6%), while the content of potassium was higher only in the soil from the object with 1.5% of sewage sludge + straw and magnesium at the highest dose of sewage sludge. The mineral N and NPK fertilization, used against the background of sewage sludge and straw, did not have asignificant impact on the shaping of the analyzed soil fertility indicators.

Abstract

Over recent years in Poland, there has been a rapid accumulation of sewage sludge – a by-product of the treatment of urban wastewater. This has come about as a result of infrastructure renewal, specifically, the construction of modern sewage treatment plants. As a consequence, the amount of fly ash resulting from the thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has grown significantly. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the possibility of using the fly ash that results from municipal sewage sludge thermal treatment (SSTT) as an additive to hardening slurries. The article presents the technological and functional parameters of hardening slurries with the addition of fly ash obtained by SSTT. Moreover, the usefulness of these slurries is analysed on the basis of their basic properties. The mandated requirements for slurries employed in the construction of cut-off walls in flood embankments are listed as a criterion of usefulness. On the basis of this experiment, the usefulness of fly ash obtained through SSTT as an addition to hardening slurries was identified.