The paper presents a simple qualitative model of environmental consequences of wildlife tourism. Qualitative models use just three values: Positive/Increasing, Zero/Constant and Negative/Decreasing. Such quantifiers of trends are the least information intensive. Qualitative models can be useful, since models of wildlife tourism include such variables as, for example, Biodiversity (BIO), Animals’ habituation to tourists (HAB) or Plant composition change (PLA) that are sometimes difficult or costly to quantify. Hence, a significant fraction of available information about wildlife tourism and its consequences is not of numerical nature, for example, if HAB is increasing then BIO is decreasing. Such equationless relations are studied in this paper. The model has 10 variables and 20 equationless pairwise interrelations among them. The model is solved and 15 solutions, that is, scenarios are obtained. All qualitative states, including the first and second qualitative derivatives with respect to time, of all variables are specified for each scenario.
By reading qualitative studies, surveys, organisational histories, and textbooks, one can claim that the ethos of journalists has undergone fundamental changes in recent decades. The “high modern” journalistic ethos of the 1970s and 1980s was committed to the core values of the journalistic profession: objectivity, public service, consensus maintenance, gate-keeping, and recording of the recent past. After the millennium, these central ideals have become more ambivalent and “liquid”: subjectivity, consumer service, the watchdog role, agenda-setting, and forecasting the future seem to be more tempting alternatives than before. This article develops an analytic framework that elaborates the simple narrative from “high modern” to “liquid modern” journalism. Five key elements, namely, (1) knowledge, (2) audience, (3) power, (4) time, and (5) ethics, are discussed and problematized to suggest a more nuanced view of the changing professional ethos of journalism.
Future economic growth and competitiveness will increasingly depend on how effectively employers can utilise their ageing workforces. To manage the inevitable changes in demographics, employers need to start preparing for an ageing workforce and developing strategies to manage and retain older employees. The main objective of this paper is to determine the impact of leadership and employee relations on work satisfaction of older employees, as well as to determine the impact of work satisfaction on the work engagement of older employees in financial service companies in Slovenia. To test the hypotheses, the authors used structural equation modelling. The results show that the effects of leadership and employee relations on work satisfaction in the case of older employees in financial service companies in Slovenia are positive, and the effect of work satisfaction on the work engagement of older employees is positive, too.
Branding literature suggests that consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) is a multidimensional construct. Starting from this approach and developing a conceptual multidimensional model, this study finds that CBBE can be best modelled with a two-dimensional structure and claims that it achieves this result by choosing the theoretically based causal specification. On the contrary, with reflective specification, one will be able to fit almost any valid construct because of the halo effect and common method bias. In the final model, Trust (in quality) and Advantage are causing the second-order Brand Equity. The two-dimensional brand equity is an intuitive model easy to interpret and easy to measure, which thus may be a much more attractive means for the management as well.
The proposed model of organisational cultures I used in my research is based on three dichotomous dimensions borrowed from G. Hofstede and other researchers. Although Hofstede proposed studying organisational cultures according to other dimensions of values than in the case of cultures of whole societies, there are numerous authors who think his model is more general and so apply it to organisational cultures too. It seems that three out of five dimensions proposed by Hofstede can become a basis for such a multidimensional model and typology. I am also in favour of this approach, as I believe that three of the dimensions included in Hofstede’s model are of a universal character, whether they concern individuals, organisational cultures or social cultures [Sułkowski 2012, pp. 103-118]
Resilience refers to the ability of a regional economy to recover from external shocks and to return to a sustainable growth path afterwards. This paper departs from the assumption that by improving a region’s organising capacity, cluster policies can strengthen regional resilience. We argue that the impact of cluster policies on regional resilience depends on the portfolio of clusters targeted for promotion, which may increase specialisation, unrelated or related variety in a region’s economic fabric. Based on a multidimensional model of cluster policies, case study evidence from seven German regions is drawn from an interview survey of 145 practitioners, policy advisors and independent observers. By illustrating the connections between cluster policy, organising capacity, and specialisation versus variety, these findings can be linked conceptually to regional economic resilience. This argument allows for some policy recommendations and the formulation of issues for further research.
The market of non-residential premises is the subject of analyses less frequently than the housing market. There are two main reasons which probably contribute thereto. First of all, commercial premises are relatively less frequently objects of trade than dwelling units; secondly, they are more diverse due to their various uses. The category includes garages, office premises, commercial premises, as well as warehouses. Such differences in their uses result in significantly different characteristics, such as surface area.
The article attempts to analyse a selected non-residential segment of the commercial property market in Krakow based on a large set of data (280 objects), referring to the transactions concluded in the last five years. The size of the data enabled the use of multidimensional modelling of the selected market in different size variants. This made it possible to draw reliable conclusions which undermine the widespread belief regarding very limited possibilities of using the method of market statistical analysis in the comparative approach, especially in this segment of the real estate market, as well as in others, where transactions are concluded less frequently than on the housing market.
specialisation des membres superieurs chez les primates et chez d’autres mammiferes a partir des etapes d’ossification. Zool Pol. 24(1). Sikorska-Piwowska Z, Zalewska M, Tomczyk J, Dawidowicz AL, Mańkowska-Pliszka H. 2015. Hominization tendencies in the evolution of primates in multidimensionalmodeling. Math Applic 43(1):77-93 [doi:1014708/mav43i1632]. Thorndike R. 1953. Who belongs in the family? Psychometrica 18(4):267-276. Vallois H. 1956. Ordre des primates. Traite de zoologie. Masson et C ie Editeurs Paris. 17(2). Videan EN, McGrew WC. 2002. Bipedality in chimpanzee
. (2009) Firestorm: American Film in the Age of Terrorism. New York: Colombia University Press. Ruscher, J.B. (2001) Prejudiced Communication: A Social Psychological Perspective. New York, London: The Guilford Press. Schrøder, K. (2003) ‘Generelle aspekter ved mediereception? -Et bud på en multidimenional model for analyse af kvalitative receptionsinterviews’ [General aspects of reception? A proposed multidimensionalmodel for the analysis of qualitative reception interviews]. Mediekultur 35: 63-73. Schrøder, K. (2000) ‘Making Sense of Audience Discourses. Towards
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