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The creation of an effective growth policy requires the identification of its key determinants. The study used one of the methods of multidimensional analysis – discriminant analysis. It is widely used on a microeconomic scale, especially in the area of forecasting bankruptcy of enterprises, but in the area of economic growth, it has not been used in practice so far. In addition to the main objective of identifying the most important economic growth factors of the European Union countries in 2000-2016, the impact of the crisis and accession to the EU was examined. The statistical data sources were the databases of Eurostat and the Conference Board (Total Economy Database). The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the rate of Gross Domestic Product growth in the EU countries was determined by consumption, investment, export and labour productivity, and in periods of economic slowdown also public debt. The enlargement of the EU resulted in an increase in the importance of export.

well maintained, and some tenement houses have been renovated. However, not all buildings were included in the revitalisation programme, in particular those inside the district. A local zoning plan covers the entire district, and most public spaces in the Old Town are historic sites that receive legal protection. 2.2 Objective, Scope and Methods The aim of this study was to perform a multidimensional analysis of spatial order in public spaces on the example of the Old Town district in Morąg in North-Eastern Poland. The results were compared with outcomes of a survey


This study examines the monthly returns in Turkish and American stock market indices to investigate whether these markets experience abnormal returns during some months of the calendar year. The data used in this research includes 212 observations between January 1996 and August 2014. I apply statistical summary analysis, decomposition technique, dummy variable estimation, and binary logistic regression to check for the monthly market anomalies. The multidimensional methods used in this article suggest weak evidence against the efficient market hypothesis on monthly returns. While some months tend to show abnormal returns, there is no absolute unanimity in the applied approaches. Nevertheless, there is a strikingly negative May effect on the Turkish stocks following a positive return in April. Stocks tend to be bullish in December in both markets, yet we do not observe anya significant January effect is not observed.


Both one- and multi-criteria tasks can be distinguished depending on the number of criteria being considered. Illustrated with an example of seven selected underground workplaces, each described by the set of 10 elements, this article discusses the possibilities to use the development index mi for determination of the workplaces which, in the light of the multi-criteria evaluation, are characterised by the worst and most favourable working conditions.


In order to assess the response of the radial growth of Pinus pinea L. to climatic variability in Central Italy, dendrochronological and dendroclimatological analyses were carried out on five different populations scattered along the Tyrrhenian coasts of the peninsula. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the ecological demands of this species, particularly in the study area.

For each site total ring, early-, and late-wood width chronologies were developed.

Multidimensional analyses were performed for the three tree-ring datasets in order to analyze the relations between sites chronologies. Both Principal Component Analyses and hierarchical classifications highlighted an important difference of one site in respect to the other, probably due to site characteristics.

Correlation functions were performed to infer the main climatic factors controlling the radial growth of the species. For a comparative study, we limited our attention to the common interval 1926–2003 (78 years) in which the response of the tree-ring chronologies to climate at both local and regional scale was investigated.

Positive moisture balance in the late spring-summer period of the year of growth is the climatic driver of P. pinea radial growth in the study area. Moreover, this study shows how low summer temperatures strongly favor the radial growth of the species.


The aim of this study was to perform and evaluate the accuracy of classification of grains of different cultivars of malting barley. The grains of eight cultivars: Blask, Bor do, Con chita, Kormoran, Mercada, Serwal, Signora, Victoriana, with three moisture content: 12, 14, 16% were examined. The selected parameters of the surface texture of grain mass obtained from images taken using the techniques of hyperspectral imaging were determined. The accuracy of grains discrimination carried out using different methods of selection and classification of data was compared. The pairwise comparison and comparison of three, four and eight cultivars of malting barley were carried out. The most accurate discrimination was determined in the case of the pairwise comparison. Victoriana cultivar was the most different from the others. The most similar texture of grain mass was found in the comparison of cultivars: Blask and Mercada. In the case of eight examined cultivars of malting barley, the most accurate discrimination (classification error – 55%) was obtained for images taken at the moisture content of 14% and at a wavelength of 750 nm, for the attributes selection performed with the use of probability of error and average correlation coefficient (POE+ACC) method and the discrimination carried out using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA).


The latest global economic and financial crisis has had adverse social consequences in many areas, including income and the social situation of households and their living conditions, especially when the housing phenomenon is addressed. The reality of this uncertainty has made the study of the housing phenomenon even more relevant, in particular from the perspective of an analysis of its evolution. In this context, we revisit EUROSTAT’s databases. This analysis was done for twelve Euro Area countries over five years, using the HJ-BIPLOT method developed by Galindo (1986). This multidimensional approach identified and represented twelve Eurozone sample countries in latent constructs of reduced dimensionality related to the housing policy problem. The simultaneous factorial representation identified (a) the most relevant variables to characterize these countries, (b) their trajectories during the period in analysis, and (c) the relations between variables, between countries, and between variables and countries. This approach also identified the most significant factors contributing to the countries' performance. This methodological approach can be useful in housing research, when studying data of a multivariate nature, and is also, by its visual interpretation, a potential tool for producing richer information not only for academia but also for policy makers.


The main aim of this paper is to identify differences between Polish communes as regards their revenues from property taxes. To this end, we distinguished and described types of communes with similar configurations of features under analysis (incomes from real property tax, agricultural tax and forest tax). In the research procedure, we applied methods of multidimensional analysis, with particular emphasis on cluster analysis. The research was conducted on the basis of aggregated (to eliminate random fluctuations) values of income from properties in the years 2013-2015. On the basis of typological classification, we distinguished six clusters (groups) of communes of different quantitative characteristics of budget revenues from property taxes. We identified specific regularities in the distribution of the distinguished commune types.


This paper is focused on the presentation of developmental tendencies of regional disparities in Slovakia in 2001 and 2011 from the point of view of selected and relevant socio-economic and demographic indicators. To test the divergence hypothesis of the regional disparities at a district level, these are evaluated by using multidimensional analysis of 14 indicators. The overall level and development of regional disparities are measured with the help of the methods of descriptive statistics and multi-criteria assessments (integrated index). The results confirm the hypothesis of divergence development as the basic tendency of regional development in Slovakia. The presented research has documented evident time shortening of significant changes in regions drifting towards divergent development. Rapid and, up to now, unprecedented changes (employment and wages growth, enterprise development, foreign investments increase, etc.), are evident and reflected in the majority of indicators – however, with different impacts on the regional level.


Objective reasons, such as climatic changes, larger vessels, sometimes the impracticality of the current solutions, determine the interest of decision-makers in rebuilding the existing ports and breakwaters. Tested simulation models allow for a thorough analysis of the possible modernization variants taking into account the variability of basic parameters. The article presents research results related to the optimization of the Mrzezyno seaport with respect to navigation safety and the possibility of larger vessels calling at the port after its modernization.

In the paper, real time simulation methods based on manoeuvre simulators were applied. Two different variants that can be implemented from the technical point of view were studied. Following a multidimensional analysis that took into consideration increased comfort of ship manoeuvres in the port and navigation safety, one variant was indicated as the optimum. The aim of the research results is to help design new solutions in the case of the modernization of the Mrzezyno seaport.