The main objective of this analysis was to define the influence of multivessel disease involvement compared to single vessel disease on mortality rates in STEMI patients. The retrospective study included 549 patients, hospitalized with STEMI in St. Ekaterina University Hospital (age - 62.66±12.56; women - 31.3%) from 01.06.2008 to 30.06.2011. One-vessel disease was found in 232 patients (44%) as compared to two-vessel disease in 165 patients - 31% and multivessel disease in 130 patients - 25%. There was LM stenosis (>30) in 11 patients (2%); ostial lesion in 33 patients (6.3%); presence of Ca in 37 patients (7%). A stent was implanted in 484 patients (91.8%), and GP IIb/IIIa was used in 400 patients (75.9%). There was significant increase in mortality rates in patients with multivessel disease: 15.6% - 46 patients, compared to one-vessel disease - 6.5% (15 patients) (p<=0.01). Both early (30 days) and late mortality (one year) rates were higher in the multivessel group (6.8% vs. 2.6%, p<=0.05 and 10.2% vs. 3.9% (p<=0.0510), respectively. Multivessel disease is associated with higher mortality rates in STEMI patients, which may further alter clinical course and decision making.
Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a critical condition which often complicates the evolution of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). At the same time, co-existence of chronic multi-vessel disease can lead to the development of cardiogenic shock in cases with pronounced haemodynamic instability. Different clinical studies have tried to identify the most appropriate treatment for critical cases of CS complicating AMI. This review aims to present the current status of recommended therapeutic strategies for severe cases of CS presenting as a complication of AMI, and try to shed light on the most appropriate therapeutic strategy as outlined in the current literature. The paper will discuss the different current strategies available for use in the treatment of this condition, includig interventional revascularisation, (complete or culprit), the role of new devices for providing mechanical circulatory support, and the potential role of new drug therapies and of hypothermia.
Background: The acute loss of myocardium, following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) leads to an abrupt increase in the loading conditions that induces a pattern of left ventricular remodeling (LVR). It has been shown that remodeling occurs rapidly and progressively within weeks after the AMI.
Study aim: The aim of our study was to identify predictors for LVR, and find correlations between them and the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors that lead to remodeling.
Material and methods: One hundred and five AMI patients who underwent primary PCI were included in the study. A 2-D echocardiography was performed at baseline (day 1 ± 3 post-MI) and at 6 months follow-up. The LV remodeling index (RI), was defined as the difference between the Left Ventricular End-Diastolic diameter (LVEDD) at 6 months and at baseline. The patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the RI: Group 1 – RI >15% with positive remodeling (n = 23); Group 2 – RI ≤15% with no remodeling (n = 82).
Results: The mean age was 63.26 ± 2.084 years for Group 1 and 59.72 ± 1.267 years for Group 2. The most significant predictor of LVR was the female gender (Group 1 – 52% vs. Group 2 – 18%, p <0.0001). Men younger than 50 years showed a lower rate of LVR (Group1 – 9% vs. Group 2 – 20%, p = 0.0432). In women, age over 65 years was a significant predictor for LVR (Group 1 – 26% vs. Group 2 – 9%, p = 0.0025). The CV risk factors associated with LVR were: smoking (p = 0.0008); obesity (p = 0.013); dyslipidemia (p = 0.1184). The positive remodeling group had a higher rate of LAD stenosis compared to the no-remodeling group (48% vs. 26%, p = 0.002). The presence of multi-vessel disease was shown to be higher in Group 1 (26% vs. 9%, p = 0.0025). The echocardiographic parameters that predicted LVR were: LVEF <45% (p = 0.048), mitral regurgitation (p = 0.022), and interventricular septum hypertrophy (p <0.0001).
Conclusions: The CV risk factors correlated with LVR were smoking, obesity and dyslipidemia. A >50% stenosis in the LAD and the presence of multi-vessel CAD were found to be significant predictors for LVR. The most powerful predictors of LVR following AMI were: LVEF <45%, mitral regurgitation, and interventricular septum hypertrophy.
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