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on the decomposition rate of cellulose in mountain soils. Geoderma 132: 116–130. Dümig A., Schad P., Kohok M., Beyerlein P., Schwimmer W., Kögel-Knabner I., 2008. A mosaic of nonallophanic Andosols, Umbrisols and Cambisols on rhyodacite in the southern Brazilian highlands. Geoderma 145: 158–173. Ganuza A., Almendros G., 2003. Organic carbon storage in soils of the Basque Country (Spain): the effect of climate, vegetation type and edaphic variables. Biology and Fertility of Soils 37: 154–162. Gee G.W., Bauder J.W., 1986. Particle?size analysis. [In:] Methods of Soil

forest ecosystems: result from west-central Alberta. Forest Ecology and Management 169: 15–27. Berg B., McClaugherty C., 2008. Plant litter. Decomposition, humus formation, carbon sequestration. Springer, Berlin: 348 pp. Bojko O., Kabała C., 2014. Loss-on-ignition as an estimate of total organic carbon in the mountain soils. Polish Journal of Soil Science 47(2): 71–79. Bojko O., Kabała C., 2016. Transformation of physicochemical soil properties along a mountain slope due to land management and climate changes – A case study from the Karkonosze Mountains, SW Poland

materii organicznej w gle-bach górskich Karpat. Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych 464: 169–173 (in Polish with English abstract). Drewnik M., 2006. The effect of environmental conditions on the decomposition rate of cellulose in mountain soils. Geoderma 132: 116–130. Drewnik M., 2008. Geomorfologiczne uwarunkowania rozwoju pokrywy glebowej w obszarach górskich na przykładzie Tatr. Wydawnictwo UJ, Kraków: 118 pp. (in Polish with English abstract). Dyduch-Falniowska A., 1991. The gastropods of the Polish. Tatra Mountains. Studia Naturae, Ser. A 38: 1

., KVRIVISHVILI T., TSERETELI G., KAKHADZE R., LIPARTIA D., KUNCHULIA I., 2018, Peculiarities of red color soils introduced in the Red Book of the Soils of Georgia. Annals of Agrarian Science, 16, 1: 55–59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aasci.2017.12.009 . MAKAROV M.I., HAUMAIER L., ZECH W., MALYSHEVA T.I., 2004, Organic phosphorus compounds in particle-size fractions of mountain soils in the northwest Caucasus. Geoderma 118: 101–114, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(03)00187-3 . MACHAVARIANI M., 2004, Brown forest soils of Trialeti Range. Tbilisi, Georgia (in

Abstract

The number of soil mesofauna and enzymatic activity of soils are good indicators of changes in soil influenced by cultivation. The aim of this study was to compare density of enchytraeids and the activity of dehydrogenases (ADh), urease (AU), and invertase (AI) in the soils of grassland and arable land. Relationships that exist between those biological parameters and the basic soil properties (the content of total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (TN), pH, texture, and total porosity) were defined. In the research, soil material from humus horizon of 12 soils which were located in the Mały Beskid and Silesian Foothills (S Poland) was used. The main density of enchytraeids in grassland soils (12 982 ind⋅m-2) was twice higher than in arable land soils (6099 ind⋅m-2), and the differences were statistically significant. Grassland soils were characterised by higher enzymatic activity than arable land soils. However, only ADh, which were almost three times higher in grassland than in arable soils (2024 and 742 μmol TPFkg-1h-1, respectively), showed significant differences. In grassland soils more favourable edaphic conditions for the development of soil organisms occurred in comparison with arable land.

Abstract

This paper deals with the evaluation of the effect of afforestation of previously arable land to soil characteristics changes. One of the main aims was to evaluate the effects of each forest species on the soil structure quality after afforestation. Soil samples were taken at two climatically distinct subregions within the Czech Republic. Based on the different site conditions, two study sites were chosen at each locality for a total of four research sites. Detailed soil survey and basic forest stand inventories were conducted at all four sites. The first locality was established in the Rychnov nad Kněžnou district in the Protected Landscape Area of the Orlické mountains (soil type a Haplic Cambisol). The second locality was established in the Prague-East district (soil type a Haplic Cambisol and a Haplic Stagnosol). Afforestation had a positive influence on the soil physical characteristics which are important for the maintenance of soil stability. Forest cover has a major influence on increasing the soil porosity, by decreasing the reduced bulk density and increasing capillary and gravitational pores, which is crucial. Afforestation was also found to be positively related to increases in soil organic matter content in different forms, both stable and unstable, and tendency of considerable soil organic matter accumulation not only in the layer of surface humus but also in the entire soil profiles of the research sites. The main contributor to soil improvement after afforestation is the formation of stable soil aggregates. This is typical also for spruce and pine cover.

(2005) Quantification of plasmic fabric trough image analysis. Catena 63, 109.127. ZAGÓRSKI Z., GRELA-BRZYCHCY S., SIECZKO L. 2010: Application of computer detection in the micromorphological characteristics of some microstructure features of soils developed from lower Triassic clayey deposits in The Holy Cross Mountains. Soil Science Ann . 61, 4: 250.259. ZAGÓRSKI Z., KACZOREK D. 2002: Haematite . a lithogenic form of iron in soils from the southern part of the Holy Cross Mountains. Annual of Warsaw Agricultural University, Agriculture 43, 78.96.

REFERENCES Basiliko N., Moore T.R., Lafleur P.M., Roulet N.T., 2005. Seasonal and inter-annual decomposition, microbial biomass, and nitrogen dynamics in a Canadian bog. Soil Science 170: 902–912. Bayley S.E., Thormann M.N., 2005. Nitrogen mineralization in western boreal bog and fen peat. Ecoscience 12(4): 455–465. Bojko O., Kabała C., 2014. Loss-on-ignition as an estimate of total organic carbon in the mountain soils. Polish Journal of Soil Science 47(2): 71–79. Bogacz A., 2005. Właściwości i stan przeobrażenia wybranych gleb organicznych Sudetów. Zeszyty AR we

(in Polish). Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, seria D, Monografie 148: 1–80. Drewnik M., 1998. Geoecological modalities of humus horizons development in the mountain soils (Polish Carpathians). PhD thesis. IGiGP Kraków. 107 pp. (manuscript, in Polish). Drewnik M., 2006. The effect of environmental conditions on the decomposition rate of cellulose in mountain soils. Geoderma 132: 116–130. Drewnik M., Musielok Ł., Stolarczyk M., Mitka J., Gus M., 2016a. Effects of exposure and vegetation type on organic matter stock in the soils of subalpine meadows in the Eastern

. Environ. Qual. 30: 2173-2179. Szopka K., Karczewska A., Kabała C., 2011. Mercury accumula­tion in the surface layers of mountain soils: a case study from the Karkonosze Mountains, Poland. Chemosphere 83(11): 1S07-1S12. Wallschläger D., Desai M.V.M., Splenger M., Wilken R., 1998. How humic substances dominate mercury geochemistry in contaminated floodplain soils and sediments. J. Environ. Qual. 27: 1044-10S4.