Katarina Wedelsbäck Bladh, Flemming Yndgaard, Erland Liljeroth, Åsmund Asdal, Terhi Suojala-Ahlfors, Svein Øivind Solberg and Agnese Kolodinska Brantestam
and sulphur supply. – Plant Soil Environ, 62(7): 307–313.
R hodes A.M., C ourter J.W., S hurtleff M.C., 1965: Identification of Horseradish types. – Transacions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 58.
S arli G., L isi A., A gneta R., G rieco S., I erardi G., M ontemurro F., N egro D., M ontesano V., 2012: Collecting horseradish ( Armoracia rusticana , Brassicaceae ): local uses and morphologicalcharacterization in Basilicata (Southern Italy). – Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 59(5): 889–899.
S tokes G.W., 1955: Seed
41: 1659-1675. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci2001.1659.
Singh S.P., Schwartz H.F. 2010. Breeding common bean for resistance to diseases: a review. Crop Science 50: 2199-2223. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci2009.03.0163.
Stoilova T., Pereira G., Tavers-de-Sousa M.M., Carnide V. 2005. Diversity in common bean landraces (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Bulgaria and Portugal. Journal of Central European Agriculture 6(4): 443-448.
Stoilova T., Pereira G., Tavers-de-Sousa M.M. 2013. Morphologicalcharacterization of a small common bean (Phaseolus
Lucky bamboo (Dracaena braunii) is a popular ornamental plant in Iraq. Individuals of this plant showing stem and root rot symptoms were observed during a survey conducted from November 2015 to February 2016 in several nurseries in Kerbala province, Iraq. Based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the pathogen was identified as Fusarium proliferatum. This is the first report of stem and root rot caused by F. proliferatum on lucky bamboo (D. braunii) in Iraq.
S. Song, J. Tian, Y. Li, F. Shang, X. Kang and J. Wang
Polyploid breeding has the potential to increase the economic secondary metabolites of Eucommia ulmoides. However, pollination with induced ploidy-mixed pollen has failed to produce polyploids (GAO, 2006). In this investigation, the morphological characterization and in vitro germination of heat-induced ploidy-mixed pollen of E. ulmoides were analysed to determine why there is no polyploid production. Heat-treated pollen grains were easily distinguished as large and small according to their length. The large pollen grains were significantly longer than both untreated and heat-treated small samples, suggesting that they were probably 2n pollen. Rather than the three germinal pores in small pollen, the large grains typically had four pores and, in some cases, shallow furrows, which might affect their germination. Although the maximal germination rates of the treated small and large pollen were not significantly different, the large pollen germinated tardily during the early stages of incubation. The small pollen maintained its growth during the incubation, but the tube growth of large pollen almost stopped after 24 h incubation. Both vegetative and generative nuclei in the large pollen moved into tubes later than in small pollen and the frequency of mitosis in generative nuclei of large pollen was low. Therefore, the tardy germination, poor tube growth, and weak activity of both vegetative and generative nuclei probably caused the poor competition of large pollen in certation. Finally, techniques to increase the competition of highploidy pollen and the prospect of 2n female gamete induction in the polyploid breeding program of E. ulmoides are discussed.
The nematode, Procamallanus spiculogubernaculus Agarwal, 1958 was found from the Stinging catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794) from Ghazipur, Delhi, India. Morphological characterization, including scanning electron microscope observation supplemented with DNA sequences is provided. Specimens recently found are characterized by the presence of an unlined buccal capsule having a small basal ring, esophagus muscular and glandular, vulva position is slightly post-equatorial, tail conical, long, and ending in three digit-like processes, phasmids present at about mid-length and cloaca located at the posterior end. In this study the species P. spiculogubernaculus is validated on the basis of molecular data after 47 years from its original description. In the scanning electron microscope examination, the topology of mouth and sensory pits in anterior portion, while the phasmids and digit like processes in posterior portion is clearly observed. Molecular data of the 18S ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were analyzed. Molecular phylogenetic analyses supported the validity of Procamallanus spiculogubernaculus and confirmed the paraphyletic status of the members of Procamallanus, Spirocamallanus, Camallanus and Paracamallanus. Taxonomic status of members of the family Camallanidae are briefly discussed along with the results of the systematic evaluation of P. spiculogubernaculus based on molecular data.
Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is the most destructive factor to western honey bee colonies worldwide. In 1904, Varroa was firstly recorded on honey bees, at the beginning it was hypothesized that Varroa is one species but recently this hypothesis has been considered to be incorrect. In 1983, Varroa mite was recorded in Egypt for first time. So far, a single study was done in Egypt to confirm Varroa species to be V. destructor and not Varroa jacobsoni as it was previously thought. Still the exact haplotype of Varroa in Egypt is unknown. This study is a step towards the identification of Varroa in Egypt. Here, morphological investigations were performed on Varroa specimens belong to northwest Egypt (El-Behera governorate). Three characteristics only showed significant differences among districts, namely body width, genital shield width, and genital shield length/genital shield width (ratio II), while the rest of characteristics did not present any significant differences. The correlations among the characteristics were very weak, except body length which correlated significantly (P<0.05) with body width and genital shield width by 0.52 and 0.42, in respect. The study presented additional confirmation that V. destructor is the current species infesting honey bee colonies in Egypt. Also, Varroa haplotype was identified to be the Korean one. A list of some morphological traits of Varroa mite was provided to enable further comparisons. A morphometry map for Varroa mites was also done using a geographical information system (GIS) to correlate between geographical locations and morphological characteristics. The morphometry map clearly classified studied districts, according to measured characteristics, into three classes as low, moderate and high. This study has a significant importance towards the fully understanding of Varroa populations in Egypt.
M. Groza, S. Lazarova, C. Costache, F. Luca, I. Rosca, E. Fanelli and V. Peneva
Additional data on the occurrence and distribution of Xiphinema non-americanum group species in Romania are provided. Xiphinema diversicaudatum, X. index, X. vuittenezi and X. italiae were recovered from vineyards and cherry fruit trees; adults and juvenile stages were described and analysed and the morphology/variability discussed. Multiplex PCR diagnostic test using species-specific primers designed by Wang et al. (2003) yielded amplification products with expected lengths for all screened populations of these four species. Two ribosomal markers (D2-D3 28 LSU rDNA and ITS) were sequenced and ITS RFLP patterns were obtained from two X. vuittenezi populations, which have shown some morphological differences. Comparatively low level of interpopulation genetic dissimilarity (<1 %) was revealed for both markers (for D2D3 — 0.5 %; for ITS — 0.7 %). Both populations of X. vuittenezi studied produced identical ITS-RFLP specific pattern that clearly identify this species.
Sex determination is one of the most important and initial steps in human profile identification from archaeological material. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the application of molecular approaches alongside morphological methods for sex determination in archaeological human skeletal remains. Human skeletal remains were excavated from three cemeteries: St Gertrude Old Church, Dom Square and St Peter’s Church, of 15th–17th century burials in Rīga, Latvia. Morphological and molecular genetic methods, including amplification of genes AMELX/Y and SRY were used to analyse seven skeletal remains. The conducted analyses of morphological features identified sex in all seven cases (two females and five males). By molecular analyses of mediaeval DNA it was possible to determine sex in five of seven (71%) samples. In all positive cases full agreement between morphological estimation and molecular genetic methods was observed. To conclude, DNA analysis can be considered for sex identification in cases with no signs of sexual dimorphism (juvenile skeletons) or partially preserved skeletons.
Maciej Szmidt, Kaja Urbańska, Marta Grodzik, Piotr Orłowski, Ewa Sawosz, Mateusz Wierzbicki and Paweł Sysa
1. Balčiūnienė N., Tamašauskas A., Valančiūtė A., Deltuva V. Vaitiekaitis G., Gudinavičienė I., Weis J., Graf von Keyserlingk D.: Histology of human glioblastoma transplanted on chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Medicina (Kaunas) 2009, 45, 123-131.
2. Balke M., Neumann A., Kersting C., Agelopoulos K., Gebert C., Gosheger G., Buerger H., Hagedorn M.: Morphologiccharacterization of osteosarcoma growth on the chick chorioallantoic membrane. BMC Res Notes 2010, 3, 58.
3. Candolfi M., Curtin J
The specimens collected from American mink (Neovison vison) and European polecat (Mustela putorius) in Lithuania were morphologically identified as Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788) Lühe, 1909 and were molecularly characterized through sequencing of partial 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS1- 5.8S-ITS2 region, and ND1. Relations of I. melis to other species of the genus Isthmiophora Lühe 1909 were discussed. According to ITS1 and ND1 sequences the closest species to I. melis is Isthmiophora hortensis (Asada, 1926).