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mózgu. Co neuronauka mówi o moralności [The Morality of the Brain: What Neuroscience Says on Morality], tłumaczenie i przedmowa [trans. and preface by] M. Hohol, N. Marek. Kraków: Copernicus Center Press. CHYROWICZ, B. (2008): O sytuacjach bez wyjścia w etyce. Dylematy moralne: ich natura, rodzaje i sposoby rozstrzygania [On Dead-end Situations in Ethics: Moral Dilemmas: Nature, Types and Ways to Resolve]. Kraków: Znak. CZARNECKI, P. (2013): Postępowanie dyscyplinarne wobec osób wykonujących prawnicze zawody zaufania publicznego [Disciplinary Procedure with Legal

, A. A., & Bègue, L. (2015). The drunk utilitarian: Blood alcohol concentration predicts utilitarian responses in moral dilemmas. Cognition , 134 , 121-127. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2014.09.006 Frederick, S. (2005). Cognitive reflection and decision making. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19 , 25-42. doi: 10.1257/089533005775196732 Gold, N., Pulford, B. D., & Colman, A. M. (2013). Your money or your life: comparing judgments in trolley problems involving economic and emotional harms, injury and death. Economics and Philosophy, 29 , 213-233. doi: 10.1017/S


This study investigated the relationship between English teachers’ epistemological beliefs and moral dilemma. In doing so, 70 English teachers were selected from different language institutes and were included in the research sample. The instruments used to collect the data included the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire (SEQ) and the Defining Issues Test (DIT). The collected data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation method and descriptive statistics in SPSS software. The findings revealed that the participants believed that knowledge improves with experience over time, and that there was also an innate ability to acquire knowledge. They also displayed conflicting views about the simplicity/complexity of knowledge. The analysis of different stages of moral development in the views of the English teachers showed an ascending trend in the moral development from stage 2 (the focus on personal interests) through stage 6 (appeal to intuitive moral principles/ideals). Besides, significant differences were found among different stages of moral development as assessed by the EFL teachers and also in terms of the impact of different moral reasoning schemas on the participants when making judgments about different moral dilemmas.


Decision-making procedures in medical practice are often analysed by both philosophers of science and ethicists, as well as statisticians, clinicians and methodologists. The paper focuses on decisions made by patients in situations of moral dilemma. The main purpose is to analyse the strategies used in resolving such dilemmas. First, the concept of a ‘situation of moral dilemma’ is clarified. Then, two types of strategies for resolving such situations are distinguished. The first strategy requires revising the patient’s belief system or moral orientation. The second one includes a group of non-revision beliefs strategies (NRB). The authors argue in support of the thesis that NRB strategies are, in fact, the patient’s first choice when it comes to resolving moral dilemmas. The paper analyses situations where the NRB strategies may prove effective, as well as situations where they fail and where the solution of the moral dilemma must be addressed by revising the accepted belief system. The findings will help to better understand patients’ decision-making processes.

drives tax morale? A focus on emerging economies. Review of Public Economics, 207, 9-40. doi: 10.7866/HPE-RPE.13.4.1. Doyle, E. M., Frecknall-Hughes, J., Glaister, K. W. (2009). Linking ethics and risk management in taxation: Evidence from an exploratory study in Ireland and the UK. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(2), 177-198. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9842-9. Hakkarainen, M. (2013). Jewish tradition faces the Soviet economy: moral dilemma of ‘shadow’ entrepreneurship in the former Pale of Settlement, Ukraine. East European Jewish Affairs, 43(2), 190-205. doi: 10


The clinical use of placebo that involves some ethical issues has led to much controversy. From the standpoint of both supporters and opponents, this article discusses this topic from three ethical principles such as beneficence, justice, and autonomy and also gives the recommendations. Finally, the moral dilemma caused by the different views between nurses and doctors in clinical practice is discussed.


Educating teachers for sustainability requires that teachers be considered as the mediators of change. To achieve this goal, a constructive teacher-learner relationship is essential where values and ethicality play a crucial role. Investigating language teachersí moral identity as an important aspect of teacher cognition can yield useful insights into the kind of relationship which is congenial to the desired whole-person development. The present qualitative study intended to explore the nature of moral dilemmas in language classes and teachersí criterial beliefs in responding to these dilemmatic situations. A systematic coding analysis of the recorded interviews with eight Iranian experienced EFL teachers revealed that they encountered moral dilemmas in both disciplinary and educational aspects of the teaching process. They referred to their knowledge, experience, intuitive sense as well as the teaching context and learnersí history as sources of their moral judgment. The findings on teachersí moral identity uphold implications for teacher education.


Introduction. Research on the nature of moral problems in the work of pediatric nurses and strategies for solving them is significant, among others, for improving vocational education.

Aim. The aim of the study was to examine the opinions of pediatric nurses on the issue of moral problems experienced by them in professional practice and the strategies for solving them.

Material and methods. The research was carried out in a group of 104 pediatric nurses using the method of a survey with the use the authors’ questionnaire.

Results. Half of the nurses surveyed rarely experienced moral problems (55; 52.88%) in their professional work. In solving moral dilemmas, nurses were guided primarily by the voice of their own conscience (64, 61.54%), norms of the code of professional ethics (61, 58.65%) and procedures in force at their place of work (58, 55.77%). In the situation of a moral dilemma, it was important for the respondents to be supported by a departmental nurse (48, 46.15%) and a nurse with longer professional experience (48, 46.15%). The majority of the respondents (90, 86.53%) tried to follow the principles of a professed religion in their professional work. Half of the surveyed notice deficiencies in their knowledge. According to more than half of the respondents (70, 67.30%), the knowledge of professional ethics is useful in clinical practice.

Conclusions. The examined pediatric nurses developed strategies for solving problems of a moral nature in their professional practice. Developing moral sensitivity, improving the ability to make ethical decisions and mutual support in nursing teams are important issues to be focused on in the process of postgraduate and lifelong education of nurses.


Moral theorists like and argue that we should discount intuitions about ‘up-close-and-personal’ moral dilemmas because they are more likely than intuitions about ‘impersonal’ dilemmas to be artifacts of evolution. But by that reasoning, it seems we should ignore the evolved, ‘up-close-and-personal’ intuition to save a drowning child in light of the too-new-to-be-evolved, ‘impersonal’ intuition that we need not donate to international famine relief (contra ; ). This conclusion seems mistaken and horrifying, yet it cannot be the case both that ‘up-close-and-personal’ intuitions are more reliable than ‘impersonal’ intuitions, and vice versa. Thus, evolutionary debunking argument proves too much, and should not be taken seriously. However, Singer’s debunking argument is typical of an entire class of arguments that seeks to debunk normative principles by reference to evolution. This entire class of argument, I argue, therefore also proves too much to be taken seriously.


This article does not to seek a universal answer to the question of what morality or public morals are; rather it focuses on the issue of morality as grounds for limiting constitutional rights and freedoms. We narrow the problem to constitutional practice, and in particular to the judgments of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal, which settles disputes centered around the freedom of humans and public morals. Public morals as grounds for limiting personal rights or liberties rarely appear on the Constitutional Tribunal’s docket. The Constitutional Tribunal does not conduct philosophical, moralistic or ethical discussions in search of the meaning of public morals. Judges tend to apply the concept in an intuitive manner. We argue that they limit it to a folk understanding, which may be explained as follows: do good and avoid evil. Judges assign meaning to the public morals clause by referring to their own experiences or seek insight into morality in public opinion polls, which may not be a reliable source of knowledge about what is good and what is evil (the primacy of the “will of the majority”). Two difficult cases await the judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal. Each of them concerns major ethical and moral dilemmas. The first one relates to eugenic abortion, which is legal in Poland under certain conditions, while the second one involves the relationships of homosexual couples, which are not currently subject to legalization. The Constitutional Tribunal is not ready to solve these cases, making uses of public morality as grounds for limiting constitutional rights and freedoms.