Juraiporn Somboonwong, Khunkhong Huchaiyaphum, Onanong Kulaputana and Phisit Prapunwattana
blood glucose levels [ 3 - 5 ], increased insulin sensitivity, increased glucose homeostasis, lowered FFA, and decreased triglyceride synthesis from the liver [ 4 - 7 ]. Furthermore, exercise training is reported to reduce plasma FFA and β-hydroxybutyric acid levels in a rat model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) [ 8 - 10 ], through a reversal of defective activity of 3-ketoacyl-CoA transferase in muscle ketone use [ 9 ], and a decrease in the overall activity of ketone synthesis pathway in the liver [ 10 ].
Monounsaturatedfattyacids (MUFA), which are
Arkadiusz Pietruszka, Eugenia Jacyno, Maria Kawęcka and Wioletta Biel
of coronary heart disease: a review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 20: 5-19.
Martin D., Muriel E., Antequera T., Perez- Palacios T., Ruiz J. (2008). Fatty acid composition and oxidative susceptibility of fresh loin and liver from pigs fed conjugated linoleic acid in combination with monounsaturatedfattyacids. Food Chem., 108: 86-96.
Newcom D.W., Baas T.J., Schwab C.R., Stalder K.J. (2005). Genetic and phenotypic relationships between individual subcutaneous backfat layers and percentage of longissimus intramuscular fat in Duroc swine. J
Andrzej Łozicki, Maria Dymnicka, Ewa Arkuszewska and Henryk Pustkowiak
Dymnicka M., Łozicki A., Klupczyski J., Miciński J., Strzetelski J. (2006). Saturated and monounsaturatedfattyacids in musculus thoracis of fattening bulls fed silage of grass and maize. Pol. J. Nat. Sci., 3: 185-191.
Enser M., Scollan N. D., Choi N. J., Kurt E., Hallet K., Wood J. D. (1999). Effect of dietary lipid content on the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in beef muscle. Anim. Sci., 69: 143-146.
ESA - Application note. Simultaneous Analysis of Carotenoids, Retinoids, Tocopherols, Vitamin K1 and Coenzyme Q10 in
K. Novotná, M. Ptáček, M. Fantová, L. Nohejlová, L. Stádník, M. Okrouhlá and Z. Peták
The impact of different amounts of concentrate and stage of lactation on fatty acid profile in milk fat was measured in 30 lactating Nubian goats. The ration included medium-quality hay, grazed pasture and concentrate feed (mashed barley, oats and beet pulp at 1:1:1 wet weight ratios). Half of the goats (group A) received 1.2 kg whereas group B received 1.0 kg of concentrate daily. Milk samples were taken 3 times during lactation. The total amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) increased gradually during lactation while polyunsaturated (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) decreased. Group A had lower SFA but higher concentrations of MUFAs and PUFAs at all 3 samplings. Nubian goats fed more concentrate had FA ratios presumably more suitable for consumers of milk and milk products.
Albena Merdzhanova, Mona Stancheva and Lubomir Makedonski
The fatty acid compositions of three Black Sea fish species turbot (Pseta maxima), red mullet (Mullusbarbatus ponticus) and garfish (Belone belone) were investigated. This species are considered as preferred for consumption in Bulgaria. Lipid extraction was done according to the Bligh and Dyer method. The fatty acid composition was determined by GC/MS. The saturated fatty acids amounts were 38.32 % for turbot, 35.44 % red mullet and 42.90% for garfish. Monounsaturated fatty acids were found in lowest level in comparison with other groups for garfish (23.65%) and turbot (24.85%) while for red mullet they have a highest value - 37.56%. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as eicosapentaenoic (C 20:5 omega 3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic (C 22:6 omega 3, DHA) acids were found in highest levels in turbot (22.26%) and garfish (21.80%) and in lowest values of red mullet (9.35%). The results showed that the fish examined are good source of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, resulting in a very favourable omega 3 / omega 6 ratios, especially in turbot and garfish
Albena Merdzhanova, Diana A. Dobreva and Veselina Panayotova
African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is new species for the Bulgarian market. It is a valuable source of biologically active components that play an important role in human diet, but there is lack of information for the quality of its dietary lipids. This study focuses on the assessment of skin and edible tissue lipid quality of farmed African catfish based on lipid content and detailed fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, cholesterol and carotenoids composition. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometer (GC/MS) after lipid extraction. Vitamins A, D3 and E, beta-carotene, astaxanthin and cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet and fluorescence detectors. Lipids, cholesterol, astaxanthin and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were significantly higher in skin, whereas vitamin A and E, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were higher in muscle tissue. Vitamin D3 showed comparable amounts in both tissues. Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3) which are important indicators for fish lipids quality presented significantly high amounts. A portion of 100 g filet without skin contains approximately 600 mg. Results confirmed that African catfish meat - with or without the skin, can be valuable and preferable source of biologically active lipids.
Manja Zec, Jasmina Debeljak Martačić, Slavica Ranković, Biljana Pokimica, Mirko Tomić, Đurđica Ignjatović, Maria Glibetić and Tamara Popović
A nutritional placebo-controlled study was performed in Wistar rats in order to investigate the effects of 5-weeks aronia juice consumption towards fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in the plasma and liver, as well as plasma glucose (Glu) and cholesterol levels. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 8 animals each, and randomized to receive either the full polyphenol dose of Aronia melanocarpa juice (AMJ), 4 times less polyphenol dose (¼-AMJ) or polyphenol-lacking placebo beverage (PLB). Each group of 8 male adult Wistar rats received the liquid ad libitum. AMJ decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P < 0.05) vs. PLB. AMJ increased dihomo-γ-linoleic acid (DGLA, 20:3n-6) (P < 0.05) and decreased arachidonic acid content (AA, 20:4n-6) (P < 0.05) vs. PLB in liver phospholipids. AMJ significantly increased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) levels both in the liver (P < 0.05) and plasma (P < 0.05). Both aronia juice doses elevated the levels of beneficial n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the plasma and liver. There was a dose-dependent, significant increase (P < 0.001) in cis-vaccenic acid (VA, 18:1n-7) in phospholipids in the plasma and liver. Our results indicate favorable effects of aronia juice intake on lipid parameters in Wistar rats. These findings suggest the potential of aronia dietary intake in cardiometabolic diseases primary prevention strategies in the human population.
Piotr Kaczmarek, Daniel Korniewicz, Krzysztof Lipiński and Magdalena Mazur-Kuśnirek
The experiment was performed on 60 crossbred weaners with average initial body weight (BW) of 22 kg. The animals were divided into 4 groups, with 15 animals (10 males and 5 females) per group, based on the percentage content of the following components in complete diets: soybean meal, toasted full-fat soybeans, cold-pressed rapeseed cake with increased oil content, extruded rapeseed cake with increased oil content. The growth performance of pigs, carcass characteristics, meat quality and the fatty acid profile of depot fat were determined. The pigs fed complete diets containing toasted soybeans had higher average daily gain (ADG). The animals receiving cold-pressed rapeseed cake were characterised by lower ADG and higher FCR. The carcasses of pigs fed diets containing cold-pressed rapeseed cake and extruded rapeseed cake had lower lean content than the carcasses of pigs administered toasted soybeans. The analysed feedstuffs had no effect on back-fat thickness or meat quality. Cold-pressed and extruded rapeseed cake contributed to changes in the fatty acid profile of backfat, including an increase in the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and a more desirable n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. The extrusion processing of rapeseed cake decreased the content of lysine and methionine with cystine by approximately 4%, and reduced total glucosinolate content by approximately 17%. The inclusion of toasted soybeans in pig diets contributed to higher BW gain and carcass dressing percentage. Rapeseed cake with increased oil content led to desirable changes in the fatty acid profile of backfat.
Vesna Đorđević, Jasna Đorđević, Milan Baltić Ž., Milica Laudanović, Vlado Teodorović, Marija Bošković, Mile Peurača and Radmila Marković
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of added sunflower, linseed or soybean meal to a standard pig fattening diet on the chemical composition, fatty acid profiles of meat and backfat, and on the oxidative stability of backfat from pigs. The content of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was significantly lower (P<0.01), while content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was significantly higher (P<0.01) in the diet with added linseed. The feeding study was conducted on 30 pigs, with groups of 10 pigs fed one of the three different diets for 46 days before slaughter. There were no differences in the chemical composition (protein, water, fat, minerals) of meat from pigs fed the different diets. The content of SFA and MUFA was significantly higher, while the average PUFA content was significantly lower (P<0.01) in meat and backfat of pigs fed diet with added linseed. The content of n-6 fatty acids was significantly lower and n-3 fatty acids significantly higher, with more desirable n-6/n-3 ratio, in meat and backfat of pigs fed diet with added linseed. Malondialdehyde in the backfat of pigs fed diet with added linseed was significantly lower than that in the other two diet groups after the tissue was stored frozen at −20°C for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months.